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PSYC 3140
Joel Goldberg

ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY LECTURE: MARCH 19TH, 2013 TOPIC: PERSONALITY DISORDERS th ➔ Final Mon April 15 , 2 hours, 2pm ◦ 100 questions ◦ Location REXALL CENTRE ◦ 50 questions from chapters 12, 13 and 17 and the other 50 will be cumulative except from chapters 1,2, and 3 (this does not exclude the lectures) ➔ Differing Views ◦ Psychiatrists versus Psychologists ◦ Psychiatrists ▪ Categorical Approach ▪ Personality Approach ◦ Psychologists ▪ Dimensional Approach ▪ Personality ◦ DSM-5 may include more dimensional aspects ◦ Disordered Personalities ◦ Psychologists look at normal personalities ➔ Personality – Dr. John Livesley ◦ Definition of normal personality ▪ Stable and coherent view f self and others ▪ Capacity for intimacy and affiliation ▪ Function adaptively in society with prosocial behaviours ➔ Personality Disorders reflect failures on adapting to life tasks ~John Livesley ◦ Considers dimensions ◦ Adaptive inflexibility ◦ Vicious circles – anticipate being rejected ◦ Psychodynamic view – kind of ego defense style gives clues to kind of personality disturbance – people took a test, had trouble with a question and start freaking out after saying that must have did bad ( the way one reacts and copes reflects one's personality), feel suspicious and mistrusting of the Prof because he made the test harder than one expected (clue to personality), some obsess and ruminate over every question and detail ◦ Trait view: Hans Eysenck ◦ Dimension: introverted – extroverted ◦ Livesley said it is important to see things in terms of dimensions (continuum) rather than categories ➔ Handout demonstrates the different DSM criteria ➔ Theories of Personality ◦ Timothy Leary – Circumplex Model (1957) ◦ Two main axes for classifying personalities ▪ Dominance – submissive ▪ Unfriendly – friendly • Famous psychologist from Harvard • Hung out with the Beatles, got high on LSD, join hippies circle • Beforehand he developed the model discussed above ◦ He saw that you could look at people on a dimension (dominant to submissive and unfriendly to friendly) ◦ Two main axes for defining personality ➔ Theodore Ted ➔ Two Dimensions ◦ Impassive – Expressive ◦ Enmeshed – Autonomous ◦ Personality Test: Million Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI) ◦ Classifies each DSM personality personality disorder ◦ He formed a dimensional view ◦ No one has one straight personality – you are not JUST dramatic for example. You have other characteristics but it is the predominant personality we are focusing on ➔ MCMI Research Study of Depression ~Goldberg ➔ Sample of outpatients receiving CBT for major affective disorder ➔ Identified two groups using cluster analysis – both had depression ➔ Sociotropic personality – MCMI dependency ➔ Autonomous personality – MCMI negativism ➔ Important implications for focus of CBT treatment ◦ We all have conflicts but we do not all have symptoms ◦ People all had the same symptoms but not the same personality ◦ One group scored high on a scale of dependency and the other scored high on a scale about negativism ◦ Sociotropic personality – depression may have risen due to some sort of sense of loss, left vulnerable to show depressive symptoms (loss for unmet needs for affection) ◦ Autonomous personality – especially critical of themselves, have high expectations, those who get 98 on a test and feel like a failure because they did not meet their expectations for perfection → depression ➔ DSM-IV Axis II ◦ Clusters ▪ Odd Eccentric – paranoid, schizo, schizotypal ▪ Dramatic Erratic – borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, antisocial ▪ Fearful – avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive ➔ Marsha Linehan ◦ Studied suicidal individuals ◦ Try to understand people with high scores on hopelessness scales and social desirability (attention seeking) ◦ Used traditional behaviour therapy – not effective ◦ Video ◦ Developed dialectical behaviour therapy (DBT) which combines behavioural approaches with client centered therapy empathy ◦ Challenge black and white (dichotomous) thinking, teach assertiveness and emotion regulation.... ➔ Borderline Personality Disorder ◦ Original name: border between schizo and neurosis ◦ Complicated Relation
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