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Lecture 10

abnormal psychology -- lecture 10.doc
abnormal psychology -- lecture 10.doc

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York University
PSYC 3140
James Alcock

March 18 , 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 10 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230 Schizophrenia • when someone commits a crime and they are not in a normal state, should we punish them • Pink Floyd -- The wall • Schizophrenia can occur from someone sitting in their room and keeping to themselves to people going out and harming people in self defence o People hear voices that they think to be real • A pseudo hallucination occurs when you know that you are having a hallucination • Schizophrenia literally means "split mind" • "schzio" = "split"; "phrenia" -- relating to mind • NOT "split personality" • Rather it refers to a split, or break, in the mind -- emotions split from cognitions; split from reality • Affects 1% of the population o Incidence pretty much the same around the world o 75% of time, onset between ages 15 and 25 Schizophrenia Society of Canada • Schizophrenia is a treatable biochemical brain disease. Strikes 1 in 100 normal intelligent people. Cusses 40% - 60% to attempt suicide. Causes 10% of all people with schizophrenia to complete the act. Costs $4 Billion yearly. It is NOT the fault of the person or their family. Video • Thinking is disorganized, thoughts are loosely connected, have disturbances in mood, and behavior is disordered. History of the diagnosis of schizophrenia • Emil Kreapliin (1856-1926) was one of the first people to classify schizophrenia as a separate disorder o 1893: called it dementia praecox – “early onset dementia” o Believed it begins early in life and gradually leads to total disintegration of the personality o Thought that recovery is impossible due to organic deterioration o Later added subgroups: catatonic, hebephrenic and paranoid • Catatonic o Characterized by waxy, flexibility, stupor, odd posturing, excitement, echopraxia, echolalia • Hebephrenic o Characterized by grimaces, incoherence, extreme oddities of behaviour, grossly disorganized behaviour, flat or grossly inappropriate affect March 18 , 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 10 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230 • Paranoid o Characterized by delusions, hallucinations, unfocused anxiety, anger, argumentativeness • E u g e n Bleuler emphasized the psychological aspects of schizophrenia o He gave it the same "schizophrenia" § Meaning a split in the mind -- some functions, such as emotions, split away from others, such as thought processes o Described the four "A's" of schizophrenia § Alterations in Affect, Associations; also Autism (self-centered to the degree that ideas only intelligible to the speaker) and Ambivalence • Bleuler added a. Fourth type of schizophrenia, simple schizophrenia o Characterized by extreme social withdrawal, flattening of affect, impoverishment of language • Kurt Schneider (1887 - 1967) o Felt Bleuler’s four A’s were too vague o Believed the central diagnostic symptoms to be: § Delusions and hallucinations (“First Rank” symptoms) § Mood disturbance , confused thinking (“Second Rank” symptoms) o But these symptoms can also appear in other disorders – manic disorder, for example. March 18 , 2013 Tahreem Mahmood Lecture 10 Abnormal Psychology -Psych 3230 Symptoms of schizophrenia --DSM - IV: • Impaired social/work/family functioning • Two or more symptoms present at least a month o delusions o hallucinations – auditory or visual o speech marked by incoherence (neologisms, clanging) or loosening of associations o disorganized or catatonic behaviour o negative features (e.g., flattened affect, deficit of attention) • signs continuously present at least six months • Most rule out medical condition or substance abuse • Must rule out schizoaffective and moos disorders o A schizoaffective disorder is related to schizo
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