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Abnormal psychology Lecture 1.docx

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PSYC 3140
Joel Goldberg

Abnormal psychology Lecture 1 January 7, 2013 Abnormality, psychopathology, research (Chapter 1, 2, 5) • Albert Bandura (textbook: page 43) • Short bio: from Alberta • Youngest of 6 children (Eastern European Immigrants) • Father worked on Trans-Canada Railway • Mother worked at general store -remarkable parents • Psychology undergrad at UBC • Faculty position at Stanford University • Social influences on children (Bobo dolls) • Self efficacy: how much a person believes in themselves. Measure of self- efficacy: rating how much one believes in their ability to achieve a goal, complete task. Self efficacy and role models • Modeling (Social learning): influences of others on us • Self-efficacy – how we develop the power to effect change • Ranked fourth in history Medical Student Syndrome • When a student believes they are displaying the symptoms of a syndrome Mental Health Service Providers • Psychiatrists have an MD, can prescribe medications, psychopathology is from a medical model • Clinical psychologists: PhD in Psychology (undergrad, Masters, PhD), training in clinical assessment • Social workers: Masters • Psychology Associate (MA) – more focused on clinical treatment, less in research • Psychotherapist: Bill 171 passed to stop unqualified from treating people • Psychiatric nurses • Case workers – personal support worker (PSW) • Page 5 of the textbook What is normal or healthy behavior? • Behavior that is socially acceptable • Self acceptance: to know oneself and laugh at oneself requires mature detachment • Self-reliant: managing things independently • Extending self beyond self-interest • Sense of direction and mastery – the ability to love and work and play • We all have conflicts, not all of us show symptoms. We have ways of coping that end up being adaptive. Someone with abnormal psychology does not have coping mechanisms that are adaptive • Accurate judgment: being able to see things as they are. Making a mistake is fine, but denying a mistake is unhealthy. • Ron Artest/World Peace thanked his psychologist after the LALakers won the world championship. Donated the ring to a mental health charity. Role model, acknowledgement of mental health issue What is abnormal behavior? • Statistical perspective – behavior which deviates from the average. • Legal perspective – in Canada – Not Criminally Responsible (NCR), , instead of calling someone insane they are called NCR. Stigma attached to coverage of news relating to mentally ill people: not all mentally ill people are violent but most cases of serial killers are mentally ill • Medical (illness) perspective, psychopathology is a disease and is looked at from the medical perspective. In psychology the “human” and social aspects • Cultural perspective – social acceptability • Personal (subjective suffering) perspective • Maladaptive – adaptive inflexibility (vicious circle) Video – who cares? • What behaviors would be considered abnormal? • Personal rights vs societal rights • Self-awareness vs view of others (including family) • Note: psychiatric interview – formal diagnosis of symptoms • Symptoms and abnormal behavior during Debbie’s interview: -uncooperative (not socially acceptable) -agitated -feels people are in her head, describes a black light (hallucination??) disturbing her -disconnected sentences, random unrelated thoughts expressed • Transinstitutionalization: sentencing a mentally ill person for a crime Chapter 1 ­ Introduction • Psychopathology, the field concerned with the nature and development of abnormal behavior, thoughts, and feelings • challenges of psychology's study of psychopathology: -patient reliability -remaining objective: not allowing our own traumas and experiences to get in the way of our studies • benefits of studying psychology today: less stigma than in the past, more initiatives to talk about it, individuals such as athletes and corporations are promoting public interest, the Mental Health Commission in Canada and politician interest WHAT IS ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR? • abnormal behavior is a combination of characteristics, namely: statistical infrequency, violation of norms, personal distress, disability and unexpectedness 1) Statistical infrequency: behavior located at either end of the bell-shaped curve or the normal curve of statistical behavior where the average is in the middle and abnormal behavior is on the extremes. Used mostly in the diagnosis of mental retardation (the IQ distribution curve) 2) Violation of norms: violation of social norms, how uncomfortable the behavior makes the people around the person who expresses said behavior. Not all abnormal behavior violates social norms, such as highly anxious individuals who go unnoticed by most people. And not all socially unacceptable behavior is psychopathological 3) personal distress: behavior is abnormal if it causes distress in the person. All continuous distress is a sign of abnormal behavior but not all abnormal behavior comes with personal distress (example: the psychopath). 4) Disability: impairment because of an abnormality whether it be physical or mental. An example is substance abuse and drug addiction creates conflicts at work and in the family. Disability does not apply to all disorders (example: transvestism), but all disabilities can be linked back to a disorder 5) Unexpectedness: not all violation of norms (e.g. depends on culture), distress and disability falls under abnormal behavior. These things are abnormal when they occur unexpectedly during stressful or challenging situations where this is the last response appropriate. Examples: extreme fear and panic reactions in normal, safe situations. • Therefore, individually, each of these characteristics do not offer a good criteria for determining what behavior is abnormal, but together they can present a partial definition, although not applicable to all disorders. MENTAL HEALTH PROFESSIONS • clinical psychologist: PhD or PsyD degree (four to seven years of graduate study). Focus is on research, statistics, lab work, study of behavior. They learn techniques in assessment and diagnosis and how to practice psychotherapy • psychiatrist holds an MD degree. Does a residency where they receive training in psychotherapy. They can be functioning physicians. They can prescribe psychoactive drugs (chemical compounds that affect how people feel and think) • social worker obtains M.S.W (master of social work). • there is debate on whether or not psychologists should be allowed to prescribe psychoactive drugs given their lack of training in the medical profession, monitoring side effects of drugs, taking the focus from psychology's behavioural approach HISTORY OF PSYCHOPATHOLOGY • demonology: demons caused abnormal behavior, cured with exorcism • trepanning of skulls: Stone Age/Neolithic, psychological disorders treated by opening a hole in the skull and allowing the spirit to escape • somatogenesis: Hippocrates, father of modern medicine. Separated superstition from real science, believed brain was the center of all maladies. If something is wrong with the soma, the body, it disturbs action including behavior. Psychogenesis, in contrast is the belief that disturbance has psychological origins -Hippocrates believed disorders to be within three categories: mania, melancholia and phrenitis (brain fever). Mental health depended on a delicate balance of four humors of the body: blood, black bile, yellow bile and phlegm • Dark Ages: persecution of witches • During the 13th century: lunacy trials to determine a person's sanity • End of the Crusades in the 15th century: confinement of the mentally ill. Leprosariums were turned into asylums. • Up to 1813: Bethlehem and other early asylums treated patients in an
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