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Lecture

abnormalpsychologychapter1.odt

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3140
Professor
Joel Goldberg
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 1:Abnormal Psychology Clifford Beers energetic child, moody, with little self control, graduated from university moodiness increased especially after his brother began to have severe convulsive seizures (epilepsy), possibly caused by the massive brain tumor discovered after his death Beers developed morbid fear that he would be overcome with epilepsy 1890 brother lay dying in family home,Beers moodiness grew to despair, deep paranoia- eventually leaving unable to speak,eventually jumped out fourth floor window and survived hospitalized, mood altered from depression to manic excitement, early 1900s, no drugs available in hospital, beaten, choked, locked away for long periods with no clothes in dark and cold cells, put in straitjacket for 21 days, survived harsh conditions and recovered started a movement to reform mental health treatment with mental hygiene movement argued that all psychological disorders are medical diseases and should be treated biologically Clarence Hincks founder of Canadian National Committee for Mental Hygiene: revolutionized mental health care with respect to diagnosis, treatment, prevention established an outpatient psychiatric clinic focused on humanizing mental health problems the study of abnormal psychology is the study of people who suffer emotional, mental, and often physical pain as a result of some form of psychological or mental disorder often referred to as psychopathology Julia illness began when she was 15-17,reality became distant, visual hallucination, people changed into different characters Jamison miserable, incapable of any joy or excitement, everything was an effort, doubted ability to do anything well, tormented of inadequacies and shortcomings -in 2003 Canadian Mental healthAssociation found that 1.9 million (7%) of people aged 20 and older had been diagnosed with a mental illness and another 1.6 million (6%) individuals were found to have diagnosable mental illness although it had not formally been diagnosed, total estimated annual economic burden to Canadian economy was approximately 51 billion dollars ,mental illness in Canada accounts for more than 50% of physician billings and results in more hospital bed-days than cancer Defining abnormality in Mexico some christians have themselves nailed to crosses Easter to commemorate the crusification of Jesus Yoruba ofAfrica healers act as dog, barking and crawling on the floor during healing rituals in shinto and buddhist religions it is customary to build altars to dead loved ones to offer them food and gifts, and to speak with them as they were in the room Shuswap people of British Columbia widowers and widows customarily sleep on beds and pillows made of thorn bushes the context surrounding a behaviour influences whether a behaviour is viewed as abnormal Aparallel perspective argues that behaviours become defined as abnormal if they violate a cultures gender roles gender roles: expectations for the behaviour of an individual based on his or her gender Cultural Relativism cultural relativism: no universal standards or rules exist for labelling a behaviour as abnormal, behaviour can be abnormal only relative to cultural norms believe that different definitions of abnormality are used across different cultures complicated bereavement: people who continue to think about and talk about their dead loved ones after the specified period of mourning and may be encouraged to seek counselling (western countries) in Japan maintaining emotional bonds with deceased is not only normal but also prescribed for bereaved people in Egypt the bereaved are encouraged to dwell profusely on their grief and other people support them by recounting their own losses and openly expressing their own sorrow in emotional outpourings during the romantic age of 19 century in Western countries, close relationships were at the centre of the self definitions and the loss of loved one was a critical defining moment in the survivors life opponents of cultural relativism argue that dangers arise when societal norms are allowed to dictate what is normals and abnormal Thomas Szasz noted that throughout history societies have labelled individuals and groups abnormal to justify controlling or silencing them When the slave trade was active in the U.S slaves who tried to escape their masters could be diagnosed as having drapetomania, a sickness that caused them to desire freedom Unusualness unusualness: behaviours that are unusual, or rare, are considered abnormal, where behaviours that are typical or usual are considered normal unusualness of any behaviour depends on the cultures norms for that behaviour unusualness criterion has two problems: although it may seem objective, someone still has to decide how rare a behaviour must be to call it abnormal; the second problem is that many rare behaviours are positive for the individual and for society (gifted people) eccentrics: some people also have hobbies and activities that are rare but a source of great joy for them and do not harm to others Gary Holloway: fascinated by Martin Van Buren he founded a fan club; he is also a lifelong devotee of St. Francis ofAssisi and frequently dresses in the habit of Francisan monk; also has obsession with British Commonwealth; after war he celebrated Britain victory by renaming his home Falklands house, where he continues to fly its flag; his bedroom still has everything it had when he was a boy only about 1 in 10,000 people is a true eccentric Discomfort discomfort: behaviours should be considered abnormal only if the individual suffers discomfort and wants to be rid of the behaviours this criterion avoids the problem of using societal norms contributed to change in how psychologists and psychiatrists viewed homosexuality in 1973APAremoved homosexuality from its list of psychological disorders some therapists object to the discomfort criterion because people are not always aware of the problems their behaviours create for themselves and others if we require that people acknowledge and seek help for their behaviours before we call those behaviours abnormal, some people who could benefit greatly from help may never get the behaviours of some people cause great discomfort in others, if not in themselves Mental illness mental illness: a clear identifiable physical process exists that differs from health and leads to specific behaviours or symptoms when we give a persons psychological symptoms a diagnosis, it is simply a label for that set of symptoms, no biological test are available to diagnose any of the abnormalities discussed Maladaptiveness behaviours and feeling that are maladaptive: cause people to suffer distress and that prevent them from functioning in daily lives- are abnormal mental health professionals tend to reserve the label maladaptive for behaviours and feelings that are highly unusual or deviant three components: 3Ds dysfunction, distress, and deviance maladaptiveness criterion seem to capture what most of us mean when we call something abnormal while avoiding the problems of using only cultural relativism, unusualness, discomfort and illness criteria criteria still depends on societal norms culture and gender influence the expression of behaviours and the way behaviours are treated culture and gender influence how likely it is that a given maladaptive behaviour will be shown culture and gender can influence the way people express distress or lose touch with realities culture and gender can influence peoples willingness to admit to certain types of maladaptive behaviours culture and gender influence the types if treatments that are deemed acceptable or helpful Harmful dysfunction (Wakefield) mental disorders can generally be defined as harmful dysfunction because they involve a harmful failure or internal mechanisms to perform their naturally selected functions something inside the person is not working as it is supposed to not all dysfunction leads to disorders rather a dysfunction is a me
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