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York University
PSYC 3140
Joel Goldberg

Chapter 6 there has been considerable new evidence that positive emotions speed physiological and psychological recovery from stress experiencing stress means experiencing events that we perceive as endangering our physical or psychological wellbeing. These events are usually referred to as stressors, and people's reactions to them are labelled stress responses any negative event is perceived as more stressful if it is uncontrollable galvanic skin response (GSR),drop in electrical resistance of skin, which is an index of physiological arousal. Unpredictability also makes some events especially stressful warning of upcoming events allow people to prepare in ways that reduce impact of event Predictable aversive events may also be less stressful because people know they can relax until they get the warning that the events are about to occur- safety signal hypothesis any change in life that requires numerous readjustments can be perceived as stressful Physiological Responses to Stress When we face any type of stressor the body mobilizes to handle the stressor The liver releases extra sugar (glucose) to fuel our muscles, and hormones are released to stimulate the conversion of fats and proteins to sugar metabolism increases in preparation for expending energy on physical action. Heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing rate increase and the muscles tense. Most of these physiological changes result from the activation of two systems controlled by the hypothalamus, the autonomic nervous system (in particular, the sympathetic division of this system) and the adrenal-cortical system (a hormone-releasing system). These physiological responses prepare the body to fight a threat or to flee from it- fight-or-flight response. Hypothalamus activates the sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system. The sympathetic system acts directly on the smooth muscles and internal organs to produce some of the bodily changes. The sympathetic system also stimulates the release of a number of hormones, which perpetuate a state of physiological arousal The hypothalamus also releases corticotropin-release factor (CRF), which triggers the pituitary gland to release adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), the bodies major stress hormone ACTH stimulates outer layer of adrenal glands, resulting in the release of a group of hormones, the major one being cortisol. The amount of cortisol in blood or urine samples is often used as a measure of stress.ACTH also signals the adrenal glands to release about 30 other hormones the hormones signal the hippocampus, a part of the brain that helps regulate emotions, to turn off this physiological cascade when the threatening stimulus has passed general adaptation syndrome that all organisms show in response to stress, general adaptation syndrome consists of three phases first phase, alarm, the body mobilizes to confront a threat by triggering sympathetic nervous system activity.second phase, resistance, the organism makes efforts to cope with the threat, by fighting it or fleeing from it. third phase, exhaustion, occurs if the organism is unable to fight or flee from the threat and depletes physiological resources while trying to do so animal experiments performed in the course of 1936 showed us that the organism responds in a stereotyped manner to a variety of widely different agents tend and befriend. females join social groups to reduce their vulnerability and to gain resources, and they focus on caring for their offspring Health Psychology health psychology investigates effects of stress and other psychological factor on physical illness concerned with the roles of personality factors, coping styles, stressful events, and health-related behaviours, in the development and progress of physical disease Three models of the ways in which psychological factors affect physical disease The direct effects model suggests that psychological factors, directly cause changes in the physiology of the body, which in turn cause or exacerbate disease interactive model suggests that psychological factors must interact with a pre-existing biological vulnerability to a disease for an individual to develop the disease The indirect effects model suggests that psychological factors affect disease largely by influencing whether people engage in health-promoting behaviours According to this model, psychological factors do not directly affect health but, rather, affect health indirectly by influencing health-related behaviours Stress, Coronary Heart Disease and Hypertension myocardial infarctiona heart attack.Amyocardial infarction is one endpoint of coronary heart disease, or CHD. CHD occurs when the blood vessels that supply the heart muscles are narrowed or closed by the gradual buildup of a hard, fatty substance called plaque, affecting or blocking the flow of oxygen and nutrients to the heart. CHD can lead to pain, called angina pectoris, which radiates across the chest and arm. People who live in chronically stressful environments over which they have little control appear to be at increased risk for CHD Hypertension, or high blood pressure- the supply of blood through the vessels is excessive, putting pressure on the vessel walls People with hypertension and the children of parents with hypertension tend to show a stronger blood pressure response to a wide variety of
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