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Lecture 2

Lecture 2 - Attribution Process

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York University
PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

Lecture 2 1 January 10th, 2012 - D 3 B 7  3 D 6 D - D = vitamins 3 = flu - All letters should have equal chance of being selected - D 3 = confirmation bias (once we have something in our head, we show it it’s true) - Scientific method = be conscious of this confirmation bias Attribution Process - Attribute the cause of a heart attack to something - Ask questions: exercise? Lifestyle? Behaviour? What led to the heart attack? - Find the order that led to heart attack - Health enhancing thoughts vs health defeating attributions Examples Fundamental Attribution Error - We tend to be biased in not giving the environment or the situation credit for influencing our behaviour - We overestimate that internal characteristics impact how we feel/what we do - We tend to discount the impact of the environment - Getting insensitive of how the environment/culture/social/psychological factors plays a role in our health Actor-Observer Bias - We discount much of on others than to ourselves - More conscious of situational factors to myself, than others Defensive Attribution - Blame the victim Self-serving Bias - Good news is something about me, bad news is about the situation - We attribute success to ourselves Discounting - Something negative about the other person, we use that to attribute why they are behaving that way - Attribute that behaviour to that negative motive in the doctor o Ex: don’t use the medicine because the doctor’s motive is to make money out of it Augmentation - Attribute his behaviour to higher motives - Follow this doctor’s advice and believes what he gives is the best Am I Really Sick? - Skelton: 3 factors that lead us to decide whether we are sick - Attend to bodily sensations - Interpret sensations in the context of illness o Conscious and aware of thirst is a sign of diabetes, then we will get concern for constancy of thirst - Negative mood Lecture 2 2 January 10th, 2012 Information and Self-Regulatory Theory - Applying attribution process - Information in our head gets to decide what we do to look after ourselves - Information regulates how we behave - Culture: hands us some schemas o Ex: if you experience pain, suck it up - Amount of information: access to information in the Internet o Medical students disease - Social comparison Attribution Therapies James-Lange Theory - What determines how you feel: is based on biological state - There is a biological state for each feeling Cannon-Bard Theory - Increased level of adrenaline in the system that is associated with fear - Found the anger (fight response) has high level of adrenaline - Supports the James-Lange theory - Explains major emotions: fight/flight, does not example joyful Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (by Schachter and Singer) - Confederate for half of the population perceived as happy; another confederate perceived as sad - Epinephrine = feel more alert, perspire more, heart goes faster - When people didnt know the impact of the drug (given the placebo), they just felt the way they did (no change) - Subjects with epinephrine with happy confederate: felt positive - When theres no physiological change in their body, there’s no way to see whether there are changes - When given epinephrine, they felt different o They noticed the positive side of epinephrine, interpreted it as good stuff o Impacted by situational factors - When people told accurate info about epinephrine, subjects responded whatever the doctors said o The happy/anxious confederate had no impact on them Autonomic arousal Cognitive interpretation of that arousal - What do you attribute to cause that arousal Ovid - Wrote about how to make women fall in love with you Misattribution and the Exacerbation Model Ross, Rodin, and Zimbardo - Subjects worked on puzzles that were hard/impossible to do - All told that they are studying loud noise on puzzle solving Lecture 2 3 January 10th, 2012 - ½ people told noise causes arousal (geared up); ½ people told noise makes you drowsy (weary/tired) - 1 puzzle was done and measure how long you’ve worked on it - 1 puzzle if done, you would win some money - 1 puzzle, need to avoid severe electric shocks - See how long the people will work on the puzzle under the belief that noise causes arousal/drowsy - Case 1: Monetary award – both group worked equally long (measured in minutes) - Case 2: Avoid getting shocked – noise causes you sleepy group spent more time working on the puzzle o If told noise causes you tired, they work harder to get rid of weary  You feel awful too; that feeling of arousal is completely based on the shock  Since they want to avoid that feeling of shock, they work harder to complete the puzzle o If told noise causes you arousal, have that same miserable feeling, it’s because of the noise and the shock that made them miserable; tricked that noise causes anxiety instead of shock  Attribute uncomfortable feeling to the noise to avoid getting the shock  Didn’t think all their anxiety is attributed to the noise; part of that anxiety is associated with the shock as well Storms and Nisbett - Previous study: convince the noise causes bad feelings - Help study having trouble falling asleep (in
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