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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Prevalence of Depression

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York University
PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

Lecture 5 1 January 31st, 2012 Placebo Effect - People get better without active ingredient in the medication (ex: saline solution) - Parkingson disease: thought given dopamine treatment, but instead given saline solution - Anti-depressants vs placebo – placebo (32%) helped more than anti-depressants (24%) - Back pain: 1 given fake acupuncture, 1 given acupuncture, 1 given standard therapy o Fake and real acupuncture reduced 2x pain - Fake pills: 1 costs more, 1 costs less o Costs more pill patients got better - Told placebo: patients told taking placebo pills to relieve bowel system (59% works) o They got better because they expected it to get better, they’re paying attention it o Given explicit instructions on how/when to take it What is the Placebo Effect? - The expectation that the treatment might get you better – has lots to do with classical conditioning How might it work? - Conditioned by the culture that the pill will make you better Prevalence of Depression - Depression = common cold of mental illness, so many people have it - 20% depression symptoms and not getting help - Supervisors are responsible that the workers are fit to work (physically / mentally) - Slide 8: participants asked if in any time did they experience depression for 2 weeks o Women doubled the rate o Culture accepts women to have depression than men do - Slide 9: participants asked if in any time did they experience alcohol abuse o Men rated higher than women o Some of these males might experience depression but mask it by alcohol abuse/violence Financial Costs of Depression - Depressive people have my heart disease; commit suicide (15%) - People are depressed have several times of rate of heart disease than others (related to stress) - Depression feeds on itself o Depressed mood  cognitive/behavioural consequences (easily distracted, feel bad)  negative experiences (losing job, fighting with spouse)  self-focus and self-blame - Depression associated with low level of serotonin (neurotransmitter) in the body o When try to deal with, uses more of these neurotransmitter, makes it harder Observable Signs of Depression - Mask of depression = people are depressed often and don’t show much emotion in their face, monotone - Drowsiness at work = have problem sleeping, don’t have much energy - Eating = put on or lose weight, bring their lunch but don’t eat it - Hostile/impatient behaviours = they have problem dealing with things, cant handle things well Observable Effects of Antidepressant Medication - People believe they are going to work, so these medications work Lecture 5 2 January 31st, 2012 Does the Workplace Contribute to Depression and Suicide? - WCB/WSIB: they say yes, workers given compensation for depression - Civil law cases: depressed guy and drinking at work for 20 years - Toxic agents = aluminum - Poor person-job fit = temperament (quiet person, but have job that is too active) Stress - Work stress goes up with higher level of education o Higher level of education worry about their behaviour if they struggle so much Definition of Stress - Own reaction to the environmental demand that the person is confronted with - Stressors = things to evoke and poke out of us - Han
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