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Lecture 3

Lecture 3 - 8 Approaches to Attitude Formation and Change

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PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

Lecture 3 1 January 17th, 2012 Behavioural Therapy for Sexual Problems - Socio-cultural deprivation and ignorance of sexual physiology o Not getting enough information about the topic o Given psycho-education (myths and fallacies) - Systematic desensitisation o When people have trouble doing something, get them to feel comfortable o Ask them to refrain from sexual activities other than the prescribed ones o Start with something couples feel comfortable with o Focus on enjoying of the prescribed activity Modern Sex Education - Sex = not something we do, but something that we are - Children get sex ed from media, not from parents - Should teach it early starting at age 5 - Self-awareness o Teach values of sharing, cooperating, respecting others’ rights/privacy o Control emotions - Physiology o Teach proper terms of body parts - Reproductive - Family Attitudes - An idea we have about human, that we think is kind of useful - General and enduring positive/negative feeling about something Beliefs - Reserve for information that a person has for things - That information in our head can be factual or can be personal opinion - Bunch of beliefs form our attitudes Why study attitudes? - Help get summary of overall beliefs – helpful to predict their behaviour - Know where people stand 8 Approaches to Attitude Formation and Change th - 8 approach (ELM) = theory that embraces the preceding 7 theories 8) Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) - Step 1: Persuasive Appeal o a. Central route (the route of intellectual ideas)  Audience: ability to analyze and motivated to do so  Processing: put cognitive energy (elaboration) – come up on their own thoughts  Persuasion: evoke enduring agreement; strong arguments you create yourself, the thoughts you have not the persuasive appeal that change you (thoughts of agreement with speaker/opposite) Lecture 3 2 January 17th, 2012 o b. Peripheral Route (not the ideas that people have)  Audience: not the correct audience to persuade (asking students to invest in RRSP)  Processing: use peripheral cues (other cues other than cues related to persuasion)  Persuasion: what is influencing their decision is based on their thoughts 1) Conditioning and Modelling Approaches Classical conditioning: Ex: antibuse (drug took on daily basis) to fix alcoholics – if you drink alcohol, you will get awfully sick Operant conditioning: Behaviour modification: reward/punishment Modelling: Conform to groups or do what the norm is doing 2) Message Learning Approach - Persuasive message: understandable? If no, then no attitude change - Attention to message - Comprehension of message - Acceptance of message - Communicator: Who says? Where is the info coming from? Credible? Trustworthy? o Communicator factors = trust - Message content: what? Emotional/reason argument? o Message factor = fear  People brush teeth with high fear has more plaques  Need to use fear appropriately to influence people  People brush teeth with low-moderate fear has less plaques - Channel: how messages are framed o
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