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PSYC 3170
Jennifer S Mills

75 Multiple Choice, 25 Marks for Long Answer Long Answer from lecture Final Exam 50 M/C mostly from textbook Chapters 11-15 - but long answer question from beginning of term - watch all of the videos, integrative question, one long answer have choice and from last few lectures Introduction to Health Psychology  straddles social personality, abnormal and physiological psychology - will see all three sub disciplines show up  abnormal psychology- for ex. eating disorders- physiological psychology - have to appreciate this for a lot of topics we discuss- for ex. fight or flight reaction stress and how it increases risk factors for other illnesses  social and personality- way we think, attitudes about ourselves, health inform whether someone falls prey to peer pressure which is risk factor for smoking or may feel belief smoking will make them appear cool etc. The Changing Field of Health  100 years ago, people were afflicted and dying of very different things than today - 100 years ago leading causes of death were pneumonia, influenza and TB  now people dying from chronic disease - leading causes of death now are stroke, heart attack, cancer - which has links to behaviors and lifestyles in some cases  one of the differences because of this trend- illnesses now much longer duration now  100 years ago those diseases TB, influenza short duration  now people have chronic diseases that last many years - even cancer considered to be chronic  cancer like lymphoma chronic - monitored for many years  very different patterns of disease and death  lifestyle trends- people now more seditary  100 years ago no matter how structure lifestyle couldn’t be immune from TB - steps take to reduce infection but if infected-that was it  behavior and lifestyle did not play a major role  now lifestyle and behavior choices play a huge role - how much smoke, drink, eat, exercise all influence health  makes sense that psychology more important in medicine  behavior factor in decline in certain deaths - decline in cardiovascular disease, certain types of disease like lung cancer  in addition increases in infant survival rates - thus more people are living and living longer  cost of medical care - last 100 years seen enormous increase in cost of medical care- now we have innovative treatments for different kinds of cancer - stem cell transplants - these are all very costly, so cost of medical care factor in psychology becoming more involved in medicine  psychologists trained as researchers - have a PhD- researchers at core - psychologists brought more sophisticated and advanced research design and methodology - emphasizing important of placebo, control, double blind, randomized control trials, advanced statistical techniques  important if spend 1000s of dollars on treatment that it will work  are these treatments more effective than existing treatments or better than nothing at all  a lot of psych hired not to treat but as researchers/scientists  look at effectiveness of treatment and behavior -psychologists- also motivate people to be more healthy and make more healthy choices  cardiologists tell patient to quit smoking-but they don’t - so psychologists intervene to get them more motivated to quit What is health?  World Health Organization (1948) - Definition of Health - radical and controversial because first time included more than physical state  Health is "A complete state of physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease and infirmity"  health goes beyond just the physical state  Social - family/friends, access to education, relationships outside family, friends etc The Biomedical Model  Theory is a framework for understanding something - when understanding phenomena -theory helps organizing thoughts  theory you ascribe to will influence what kind of research you do and how you treat patients  Biomedical Model/Biomedical theory dominant in medical profession  things are starting to shift but this is the dominant paradigm for physicians  can be characterized as 3) reductionistic - illness is caused by biochemical imbalances or physiological abnormalities - it all gets reduced to level of biology and physiology  don’t talk about moods etc. reduced to biology  in some ways that makes it simple - makes it more straigthforward, know what focussing on  cancer - according to biomedical model, excess division of cells  heart attack according to biomedical model can be defined as a clot that develops in coronory artery that blocks oxygen to heart  even depression -according to biomedical model - some kind of chemical balance - abnromally low levels of serotonin  serotonin - neurotransmitter well established as being inmplicated in depression  see how influence treatment - for ex. if believe depression low levels of serotonin - give people prozac so levels will be adjusted, SSRI help serotonin go up and people will feel better  model - how assess and treat imp*  2) single-factor - only biological factors considered! - physician who ascribed to biomedical model - will see patient who depressed will ONLY perscribe medication - wont ascribe psychotherapy, relaxation, therapy etc.  3) mechanistic - human body viewed as a machine -if part broken we can fix it - if part faulty we can replace it, mechanistic view of human body  problems!  model doesn’t account for everything - doesn’t account for fact that anti-depressant medication dosnt work for everybody - some research papers show 50% of people don't get better by taking anti-depressants!  other states can develop in people that don't fall into biomedical model- people complain of symptoms but can't tell what's broken or what structural abnormlity causing - can't find mechanistic explanation for disease  people who have exact same condition can progress differently - two people with same cancer can have different outcomes even with same treatment  one person may get better and one doesn't - one person can die quickly, another person live for many years  people exposed to same virus can have different outcomes - constantly bombarded with viruses but don’t all get affected - some people get really sick other's don't  own bodies react differently to viruses and bacteria - more than just a biomedical model- need to explain and understand diseases - biomedical model not good at this!  physicians trained to look at numbers - whats best course of action for most people - but doesn’t help other people who don't get better - biomedical model deficient Evolving View of Diseases  Anatomical pathology - 16th-18th- disease viewed as existing in persons structural anatomy  uptil 16th centuries church prohibited autopsies - once people started to understand what human body looked like inside - started to identify organs diseases and linked that to indviduals symptoms - connectoin between disease an anatomy  late 1800s - things moved further with tissue pathology - not just organ but tissue in body  one type of tissue can become affected - tissue beside that appear normal  late 1800s into 19th century - further progress made when discovered human tissue and animal
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