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York University
PSYC 3170
Jennifer S Mills

 multiple choice questions mainly from textbook  questions that focus on theories - results from research studies, not concerned with names, dates  in chapter 2 - physiologically dense, don’t have to know every part of every organ  need to be aware of different systems and key terms  boxes, figures, tables - boxes ex. health psychology in action  especially as relate to research studies  for long answer questions - answer 1/2 possibilities - will come from mostly from the lecture  organization of lecture notes - slides and way organized things  sometimes not right or wrong answer, think deeply more than textbook  example of long answer question -  biopsychosocial model and interventions and --- change  not just memorize what biopsychosocial model but be able to apply it to example and case illustration - patient - what fall under biological, psychological and social factor  any interaction between those categories- not mutually exclusive  long answer from last week - motivational interviewing,  transtheoretical model - explain all different stages and apply it to an example of person whose experiencing ambivalence  motivational interviewing - think about ways in which motivational interviewing may be helpful for person  memorizing and applying to to real life example Dieting and Obesity  normal eating and general influences on body weight regulation  theory proposed: used to be controversial theory, believed that people had control over how much they weighed and with advances in genetics able to carefully control for various factors - real world advancements had informed research studies looking at body weight regulation  it is nature and nurture -  cant assign some people to eat fast food and some to eat clean  theory that has a lot of empirical support  set point - biologically preferred weight, body fat level - set point arrived at when eating "normal" amount of food in a "normal" way should mean you are around your set point  not like body says want to be xx pounds - range of weights preferred biologically - some people might fluctuate around 10 pounds  other people have fluctuations within a couple pounds -  may not be the same as one's preferred weight - problem  social factors - we live in culture where stigmatize people over weight -  theory that being fat is bad and being thin good -  assumptions about what we can do about our weights ex. if only diet/go to gym lose pounds  not just exposure to idealized images, exposure to entire culture of weight modification  body defends this biologically preferred set point by enacting various physical processes  1) it has a basal metabolic weight - number of calories body requires to maintain its vital functions (vital functions = heart beat, lung expand etc, brain working)  body requires quite a bit of energy even when lying doing nothing  BMR depends on gender, lower in women - women have less muscle mass in body on average  BMR is higher in younger people - declines 2-3 percent across each decade, peaks at puberty  as going through puberty and body going through major physiological changes- that’s when body needs most energy after that downhill  body is no longer in state of growth, state of decline  it can vary for people same gender, same weight  can't tell what metabolism is just by looking at them, have to know not just what look like but how much they eat and how physically active they are  some thin people have slow or some people have fast metabolism  basal metabolic rate can be increased or decreased by some factors that are under your control - increase it with use of drugs  general drug class of stimulants would fall here - caffeine, amphetamines, nicotine - all increase basal metabolic weight,  drugs that start to "rev" the body and increase energy requirements of body  increase basal metabolic rate by exposure to cold temperature - increase BMR to keep warm  physical exertion increases metabolic rate  over time it will creep up - it comes accustomed to needing a certain amount of energy  it can also be decreased under your control -  if restrict food intake, cut back on calories, fat you will decrease basal metabolic weight - body is car, decides to become more fuel efficient  conserve resources and will require less energy to perform functions  some things must be cut back - just like car might use horsepower, body might lose energy - might feel tired, physical effects of food restriction  between 15-30% of basal metabolic rate manipulated by food restriction - this is why some people who diet don’t lose weight  bodies evolved in environment where we learned to adapt to famines  BMR only accounts for 60% of required energy  if women needs 2000 calories a day, 1200 would go to BMR, other 800 would be physical activity and mental activity Heritability Estimates from Twin Studies  really hard to tease apart nature and nurture - we agree it’s a combination of both  adoption registry - monozygotic and dizygotic - identical vs. non identical twins - who were raised together and raised apart  can estimate the percentage of that trait due to genetics alone  breast cancer 45%  weight 81% heritable !  so much higher than people imagined, but data indisputable  twins raised apart almost same as twins raised together  some affect on date of adoption - earlier adopted numbers different  early in life shared environmental influences  consistent, reliable research evidence from different parts of the world Key's Study on Starvation 1950 -  Keys approached by government - US just joined WWII  armed forces needed direction how to medically rehabilitate people who were starving  as much food as wanted? or better to give restricted diets and build up  whets the best way to refeed people in Europe  where get research study? unethical issues  he used conscientious objectors - young men, 36 participants in study and moved men into dormitories in university of Minnesota  dieting strictly for 24 weeks for 6 months  men opposing war on moral grounds but wanted to help so volunteered to study on yearlong study -generous offer to do such extreme work  volunteers were unremarkable - mid 20s average height, average weight, mentally bright, emotionally stable no mental health issues  men had will power - religiously observant, conscientious, agreed to terms of study  first 3 months of study ate normally 3000 calories a day - normal amount, young men physically active -established a regimen that carried them through 6 months semi starvation  required to walk 3 miles away, engage in physical activity several times a week, do various chores and also had opportunity to study, take courses for free  were allowed to come and go as leave - honor code to stick to diet when left  1945 experiment began - cut their daily caloric intake by half 1600 calories  continue with same amount of physical activity  also put on bland diet, given food meant to mimic kinds of food eastern Europeans eating - whole wheat bread, potatoes, cabbage, small amounts of meat and dairy products  what happened then surprised everybody  men by end of 6 month starvation - men were deeply apathetic - profound psychological changes - Effects of Starvation  physical responses  appetitive responses  psychological responses  physically purpose of starvation diet - men expected to lose 25% of body weight - 160 - 120 pounds - in 6 months  physically immediately put on starvation diet - men started complaining of stomach problem, stomach pain like constipation, bowels weren't working  men followed closely by researchers on study, everything measured - men's hair thinning on head, growing lunugo hair - downy hair that grows on back arms face- common in babies but not common in adult men  helps to conserve body heat, keep you warmer  men were dehydrated - showed different signs of dehydration, headaches, dry skin - muscular weakness - difficult to do physical activity, sore uncomfortable  decreased body temp, decreased heart rate, decreased respiration - decreased basal metabolic rate body became more efficient  psychological  men started displaying strange behavior at meal time 8:30, 5:00 In evening, two meals a day  fidgety before meal time and got worse as semi-starvation diet continued  they would play with food, take long time to eat food towards end of starvation diet  they were hungry but started to complain food not tasting right, not tasting like anything at all - started using a lot of salt and spices in food  in between meals drinking coffee and tea  a lot of men took up smoking  regular smokers started smoking more - craved oral stimulation  men started to have strong desire to eat large amounts of food - dreams of large amounts of food -swapping recipes  bizarre obsession with food - incidentally - if seen survivor shows, see same kind of behavior - talk about food all the time  originally no restrictions on movement, just honor code, then had to implement kind of supervision system - one guy ran away from dorm and binged on ice cream- had to instigate buddy system  profound hunger created in experimental participants - related to starvation  during rehabilitation phase - men randomly assigned to different feeding schedules  all of men showed lasting affects after starvation diet - finish meal and feel like they could eat another one - hunger and fullness cues backwards  go long periods and not feel hunger - took a while to reset their bodies  could consume large amounts of food - binge - thousands of calories in one sitting and not feeling full  guys anxious, apathetic, no energy, no motivation  behaviorally displayed compulsive nail biting, impaired concentration and judgement - found difficult to read, didn’t continue with course work  lost interest in sex  weren't interested in seeing friends, sleep disruptive  one case man started showing signs and symptoms of schizophrenia, one became suicidal both withdrawn from participating - enormous mental stress  this is type of experiment that will probably never be done again - unethical  bottom line - didn’t matter how refed them - all gained weight back -  some shooting up above body weight then stabilizing  few men reported eating never went back to normal and binge eating disorder  supports set point model  body defended normal weight  in starved phase body will make you think about - always on lookout for food cues in environment do everything to get food back in body  other effects due to bodies vital functions shutting down  conserve energy where can and try to prevent u from starving to death  all went back to original weight  limitations to study - men, small sample, no comparison group,  similarities and differences with anorexia nervosa Sim's Study on Weight Gain  if set point theory valid, should suspect difficult to gain weight  sim's several years later - ethan sims interested in looking at what happens to fat cells when people gain weight - do we get more of them or do they get bigger  needed people to get fat for him  prison - used inmates to study weight gain -  no shortage of volunteers in prison to eat
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