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Stress Related Topics

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York University
PSYC 3170
Gerry Goldberg

07-11-2011 Stress Related Topics • Ergonomics, environmental factors, mass psychogenic illness, pain Ergonomics • Human-machine relationships at work, sports, vehicles, home • See if people are assessable to reach the button, life the box • Simplify, find the simplest way to do things • Examines the way in which work or task environment can be designed or modified to match the capabilities and limitations of human beings • Common sense psychology: answers seem obvious after they are known • Negative transfer of learning: past learning affecting present function • Erg. Involves planning: workstations, acceptable lifts and reaches, shift work schedules, work to rest break schedules, task design, tool design, Knobs and Dials Psychology • At home  eg. Stoves: where are the dials? • At work  eg. Cranes • Three Mile Island  power plant nuclear meltdown ex. Hot coded blue but cold coded red which made it worse Ergonomics and Medical Errors • Most complaints from clerical staff, both new and old technology • Least complaints from news writers • Biological, psychological and sociological influence health issues • Ex. Of modern erg. Devices – glucose monitors or insulin pumps • Part of erg. Is making sure description to do something is simple and understandable • Checklist making a difference in deaths in emergency rooms Why errors occur in diagnosis • Physicians required to make an unusually high number of decisions • Decisions necessarily entail a great deal of uncertainty • For the most part, patients and their illnesses are seen through only small windows of focus and time • He believes that many misdiagnoses are result of readily identifiable –and often preventable- errors in thinking Heuristic Errors • Representative error (what is typically true) • Availability error (what comes to mind) • Confirmation bias (focus only on supportive info) • Affective error (what we wish were true) Environmental Stressors • • Ambient Stressors • Daily Hassles • Stressful Life Events • Cataclysmic Events Eight dimensions of environmental stressors 1. Perceptually salient 2. Type of adjustment required ○ Accommodating for certain situations 3. Value or valence or events 4. Degree of controllability ○ Personal disposition: internal or external. If high internal, then stress has less impact ○ Instrumental opportunity: if you cannot control something, it bothers you more ex. If its cold in a room but you cannot control the thermometer, it bothers you more 5. Predictability 6. Necessity and importance ○ Sometimes rules and safety measures too strict, ex. Airport 7. Linkage to human behaviour ○ Human vs, nature noise 8. Duration and periodicity ○ Nature of sound, how long it occurs, exposure, current exposure Noise as a stressor • Ergonomics says there is a limit to people’s ability to attend • Hearing serves to alert and warn scratch • Noise: orienting response, startle reflex, stress response • Sounds have impact on emotion, noise causes arousal Noise as a stressor • Hearing loss, psychological, cardiovascular • Hearing loss: form of adaptation, we can’t hear stressful noise • Rahe & Arthur: ○ Step 1: Cognitive State ○ Step 2: Defense Mechanism ○ Step 3: Psychophysiological Responses ○ Step 4:
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