Class Notes (808,238)
Canada (493,099)
York University (33,530)
Psychology (4,070)
PSYC 3230 (38)

13. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders.pdf

4 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 3230
James Alcock

13. Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Monday, March 25, 2013 9:00 AM What is "abnormal" sexual behavior? • What is "normal" or "abnormal"? ○ Culturally determined ○ Varies over time in a given society The Manichees • Mani (216-276 CE) • Born in Persia to a family belonging to a Jewish-Christian sect • As a young man, had visionary experiences telling him to leave his father's sect and teach the true message of Christ • Mani claimed to be the Last Prophet promised in the New Testament • Saw his teaching as building on and surpassing the teachings of Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Buddhism • Manichaeism-- life is an eternal struggle between forces of good and evil • Sex synonymous with darkness; forces of evil imprison light • Human soul trapped in the darkness • Christ could liberate the soul and bring it into the light St. Augustine & The Manichees • Augustine of Hippo (354-430 AD) • Wanted to understand the origins of evil • Disappointed not to find an answer in the Bible • Rejected the Old Testament as primitive and immoral • Sexual impulses caused great anxiety • Converted to Manichaeism • Manichaean teachings were a source of comfort-- about sexuality for one thing • Ultimately rejoined the Christian church • A major source of negative attitudes towards sexuality in Western society ○ His views aligned sexuality with sin ○ All sexuality represents a victory of the forces of darkness • [This highlights the arbitrariness of the idea that sex is sinful] What is "abnormal" sexual behavior? • 1962 Eros Magazine began publication in the USA • Artistic, erotic, though very tame by today's standards • Lasted only four issues despite very positive response from public • Publisher Ralph Ginzberg sentenced to 5 years in prison; upheld by Supreme Court; he served eight months and never published another magazine • Nymphomania-- a "sexual deviation" in the first DSM (1951) ○ Almost any woman who seemed to enjoy sex could be called a nymphomaniac by some medical specialist or another; no male equivalent listed ○ In DSM-III (1980), it was listed as a vague "psychosexual disorder"  Nymphomania and Don Juanism-- distress about a pattern of repeated sexual relationships involving a succession of individuals who exist only as things to be used ○ DSM-III-R (revised 1987) dropped nymphomania and Don Juanism  Replaced nymphomania and Don Juanism with "distress about a pattern of repeated sexual conquests or other forms of nonparaphilic [nondeviant] sexual addiction" ○ DSM-IV (1994)-- sexual addiction was abandoned ○ DSM-IV-TR includes miscellaneous diagnosis called Sexual Disorders Not Otherwise Specified • Homosexuality was a mental illness in the DSM ○ DSM-II (1973)-- delisted; replaced by Sexual Orientation Disturbance ○ DSM-III-- that was replaced by Ego-Dystonic Homosexuality DSM-IV-- no reference at all Lecture Notes Page 1 ○ ○ DSM-IV-- no reference at all • Masturbation was looked upon negatively DSM-IV-TR Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders • Gender Identity Disorder • Paraphilias Gender Identity Disorder • Person feels trapped in the body of the opposite sex • Usually assumes identity of the desired sex [becomes a transvestite] ○ [Most cross-dressers do not suffer from Gender Identity Disorder] ○ The goal is not sexual • DSM-IV-TR criteria: ○ Long-standing and strong identification with another gender ○ Long-standing disquiet about the sex assigned or a sense of incongruity in the gender-assigned role of that sex ○ The diagnosis is not made if the individual also has physical intersex characteristics ○ Significant clinical discomfort or impairment at work, social situations, or other important life areas • Causes are unclear ○ Gender identity develops early-- 18 to 36 months/age • Sex-Reassignment Surgery ○ Who is a candidate?-- Basic prerequisites before surgery ○ 75% report satisfaction with new identity ○ Adjustment is better for female-to-male conversions ○ Gender reassignment surgery takes years of preparation and maintenance, both biological and psychological  Reconstructed penis operates w
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3230

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.