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Lecture

Ch. 1: Introduction to Psychology & Law

5 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3310
Professor
Gwen Jenkins

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Ch. 1: Intro. to Psychology & Law Tuesday, May 08, 2011:00 PM What is forensic psychology? - Any "application of psychological knowledge or methods to a task faced by the legal system" - BUT, field not yet clearly defined… many disciplines currently involved ○ Clinical psychology (e.g., competence) ○ Developmental psychology (e.g., child custody cases) ○ Social psychology (e.g., jurors' attitudes) ○ Cognitive psychology (e.g., eyewitness memory) - AND, expectations vary [to be a forensic psychologist] ○ e.g., UK requires clinical training ○ e.g., US prefers legal & psychology background Heibrun's Model: Clinical Training[in textbook, page 5, ON TEST] Approaches Clinical Training (e.g., clinical, counselling, school psychology) Research/Scholarship 1. Assessment tools 2. Intervention effectiveness 3. Epidemiology of relevant behavior (e.g., violence, sexual offending) and disorders Applied 1. Forensic assessment 2. Treatment in legal context 3. Integration of science into practice Heibrun's Model: Experimental Training Approaches Experimental (e.g., social, developmental, cognitive, human experimental) Research/Scholarship 1. Memory 2. Perception 3. Child development 4. Group decision making Applied 1. Consultation re: jury selection 2. Consultation re: litigation strategy 3. Consultation re: "state of science" 4. Expert testimony re: "state of science" Heibrun's Model: Legal Training[test covers no more than these charts] Approaches Legal (law, some training in behavioral science) Research/Scholarship 1. Mental health law 2. Other law relevant to health and science 3. Legal movements Applied 1. Policy and legislative consultation Applied 1. Policy and legislative consultation 2. Model law development Psychologist Roles[from chapter 2, don't need to read this chapter but must know this] 1. Advisors (e.g., trial consultant, expert witness) - Trial consultant  Identify major issues in a case, jury (de)selection, prepare witnesses for trial  Comment on validity of an expert's report - Expert witness  E.g., competence  E.g., quality of "psychological" evidence  E.g., was the interrogation suggestive? Were the psychological tests used valid? Expert Witness: Eye Witness Testimony - [ Two types of witnesses in court: - Fact witness (includes eye witnesses) - Expert witness (can give evidence about eye witness testimony) ] - Not all experts can be expert witnesses… - Inconsistency in admissibility of expert eye witness testimony  E.g., Testimony on Eyewitness Accuracy □ Rare in Canada □ US-- some states do, some states don't □ R. v. Sophonow (1982, 1983, 1985) may be key in introducing expert testimony in eyewitness accuracy [ON TEST, just know name of case and why important] R. v. Sophonow: Eyewitness Evidence - Fact (eye)witness: John Doerksen - Saw person at cash register take cardboard box, [Doerksen] followed & confronted him [with a baseball bat] - Descriptions & (mis)identifications - Went home, had 5 beers, then gave statement & description(1) of murderer to police - Doerksen hypnotized - different description(2) of murderer - 2 weeks later, Doerksen mis-identified another person(3) as murderer - Later on, Doerksen mis-identified someone else(4) - …3 months later; Doerksen attended line-up that included Sophonow-- couldn't identify anyone - Doerksen picked up by police for unpaid fines… saw newspaper with Sophonow's photo… identified him in cell as murderer - Reports of Doerksen's I.D. mistakes not given to defense lawyers at Sophonow's trial - Expert eyewitness evidence not presented during any of Sophonow's trials - [Eyewitness memory is just not reliable] - 1982: Sophonow charged with murder - First trial 1982: Hung jury/mistrial [in Canada there must be a procedural error for another trial to take place] - Second trial 1983: Conviction - Outcome: - 2001 inquiry into Sophonow's wrongful conviction, "...judges (should) consider favorably and - 2001 inquiry into Sophonow's wrongful conviction, "...judges (should) consider favorably and readily admit properly qualified expert evidence pertaining to eyewitness identification." - Sophonow received $2.3 million compensation Psychologist Roles 2. Evaluator - E.g., Evaluate effectiveness of social programs, rehabili
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