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PSYC 3310
Justin Friesen

September 13, 2013 Notes NON-CUMULATIVE EXAMS = 3 OF THEM, MC AND SHORT ANSWER  Law o Body of rules of conduct prescribed by authority that has binding force  Psychology o Scientific study of behavior and mental processes to understand, to predict, t control (how individuals think about, interact with and influence each other)  Focus on behavior forms the linkage between psychology and law  Law is ideographic - one issue can lead to a big change throughout for all Field of Psychology and Law: Early Origins  Alfred Binet (1900) La Suggestibilite o Conducts a series of studies with children (7-14) yrs. to examine their susceptibility to suggestive questioning o You can ask questions in a way that lead people to misremember what they saw o Pin on board - how was it attached, what color was string attaching it (when there was in fact no string)  William Stern (1910) o First "reality experiment"; some of the first demonstrations of eyewitness fallibility o Students are in room with others, students argue, one pulls revolver, one runs out o Witnesses told it was staged o Shock, physiological arousal from such experiences and can affect memory of the event  William Munsterberg (1908): On the Witness Stand o Wrote book, encourages lawyers, judges, police officers to take psychology seriously "On the Witness Stand" is title of book o First book covering such topics, very influential even now today o Topics:  Eyewitness unreliability  Suggestibility of vulnerable witnesses  Detection of deception  False confessions  Impact of questioning style o Book was popular success but was not well received by the legal world at the time  Two notable American cases where psychology was useful - Dormant period with some early court cases o Brown v. Board of Education (1954)  Landmark American civil rights case on school segregation  Psychological evidence used to show the detrimental effect of segregation  One argument used against segregation was that it's not just separate but equal, it's the same in every school, people against said no that's not the case  Psychology tests were done to show detrimental effects as having harmful psychological effects-- asked child who he'd like to play with, which doll looks like good or bad doll (black and white doll) o Jenkins v. United States (1962)  Defendant on trial for sexual assault after breaking and entering  At trial, judge told jury to disregard testimony of psychologists - decision was appealed  Appeals court decided clinical psychologists are experts in this area and should be able to testify  APA amicus brief submitted  Argued that psychology is an established science,  The practice of psych is a learned profession  Clinical psychologist is competent to express prof opinions concerning the existence or nonexistence of mental disease or defect and their causal relationship to overt behavior  Experience is the essential legal ingredient of competence to give an expert opinion  2001 Forensic psych recognized by APA  "the law uses psych like a drunk uses a lamp post - more for support than illumination" - Loh, as cited in Ogloff, 2002 Topics of Interest and Research  Confessions  Interrogation of adults & children  Eyewitness identification  Eyewitness testimony  Responsibility and fitness to stand trial  Legal decision-making & factors that influence it (legal & extralegal) Methods of Research in Law and Psychology  1)observational analysis o Observing phenomenon and trying to describe it, what is the nature of the phenomenon  2) Archival analysis  3)Survey research  4)Experiments  None are better than the other o Observing phenomenon and trying to describe it, what is the nature of the phenomenon o Correlational - predicting: from knowing x, can we predict y? o Experimental - causality: is variable x cause of variable Y? a. Observational studies o Observe and analyze behavior
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