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York University
PSYC 3310
Justin Friesen

criminal profiling: - identifying features of offenders based on characteristics of crimes - used in serial crime investigations, particularly homicide and rape Whitechapel murders (Jack the Ripper) Dr. Thomas Bond (1888) *read on slide* The goals of profiling - Criminal profiles are used for a variety of purposes - to prioritize suspects - to develop new lines of enquiry - to flush out offenders - to determine risk of offender escalation - to provide interrogation advice Acceptance of profiling (lilienfeld et al, 2010) - 86% of psychologists and psychiatrists agreed that criminal profiling is a "useful tool for law enforcement" - … but only 27% believed it was scientifically established enough to be admitted into courts - 58% of U.S. police officers said that profiling was helpful in investigations, 38% that it was helpful in identifying suspects Reasons for profiling's popularity (Kocsis, 2003) - fictional media glamorization - developed by police agencies - demand from police agencies The challenges of profiling - turning crime scene details into estimates of personality, age, work, habits, of offender - not a scientific enterprise, largely based on intuition and experience - not thoroughly evaluated, utility unclear organized-disorganized model - the most widely known inductive profiling approach is the organized-disorganized model developed by the FBI - Both crime scenes and offenders can be categorized as organized or disorganized - organized crimes are committed by organized offenders and disorganized crimes by disorganized offenders 1) crime scenes 2) offenders 3) org. people= commit org. crimes disorg. people= commit org. crimes Organized-disorganized model Organized behaviour: - restraints used on victime - use of vehicle in the crime - little evidence at scene Organized characteristics: - high intelligence - skilled occupation - maintains residence Disorganized behaviours: - no restraints used on victim - no vehicle used - evidence left at scene Disorganized characteristics: - low intelligence - unskilled occupation - does not maintain residence Power assertive: - wants to demonstrate control and superiority over others - intent is to sexually assault, killing is incidental as need to control increases - early 20's, body builder, tattoos - organized crime scenes power reassurance: - wants to reassure himself that he is powerful - often impotent; if sexual assault fails then murder is an attempt to re-establish control - mid 20's, isolated, dysfunctional - disorganized crimes scenes Anger retaliatory: - anger and hatred towards women - mid to late 20's, explosive temper, selfish - disorganized crime scenes Anger excitation: - enjoys pain and suffering - premeditated, organized, frequently moves body - older, socially capable, provider, educated, conventional Problem with current typologies: - little research has examined these models, but that which has raises doubts about their validity - cannot account for offenders who display a mixture of organized and disorganized features Potential criticism of profiling: - based on incorrect theories of personality; assumes personality is more powerful than situations - profiles are too ambiguous to be useful - mant aspects of profiles are common sense - professionals profilers often lack occuracy Common sense: - bases rates - 90% of serial killers are male - 75% are white
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