Class Notes (837,826)
Canada (510,504)
York University (35,437)
Psychology (4,109)
PSYC 3310 (80)
Lecture 2

PL - Lecture 2 (May 10).docx

5 Pages
80 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3310
Professor
Gwen Jenkins
Semester
Summer

Description
Lecture 2 (May 10 ) Criminal Profiling  Criminal profiler: psychological consultant or investigator who examines evidence from crime scenes, victims and witnesses o Retroclassification – goal: to constrict accurate profile/description of perpetrator o Draws inferences about perpetrator’s personality, behaviour and motivation o Normally, success rate is very low  Techniques pioneered by FBIs “Behavioural Science Unit”, Quantico, Virginia, 1970s o Relatively new – only 40 years or so Want to be a criminal profiler?  Few criminal profiling jobs o Approximately 12 in the U.S., maybe one in Canada  Training controlled by law-enforcement in the US and Canada o Psychology has very little to do with a criminal profiling background  Profilers mostly psychologists in UK and Netherlands  Expert testimony not admissible at trial – does not meet court standards o The key attribute necessary to be a good profiler is judgment – a judgment based primarily on the analysis of facts and figures, but on instinct...(Douglas & Olshaker, 1997, p15) Why Develop Profiles?  To Solve mis-matches o Between physical information from crime scene with characteristics of specific suspect  Jeffrey MacDonald  Pregnant wife & 2 young children brutally clubbed and stabbed  Cyril Wecht: Physical evidence fit, psychological profile did not  To overcome false stereotypes/simplified assumptions about... o Motives: Why criminals do what they do?  “they’re stupid”  Edmund Kemper (very smart serial killer, IQ of 136)  “they hate”  Ted Bundy – charming man who is able to talk extremely well, can lie well  Just because they say something, does not necessarily mean it’s true  “it’s what they know best”  BTK – claims that he was possessed and had not control over his actions  Do they ever take personal responsibility for their murders? Do they blame something? o i.e. Ted Bundy blamed pornography o Personality Types – murder? Rape? Fraud? o Backgrounds – impoverished backgrounds or broken homes?  Interviews with 36 male murderers  Less than 50% from largely “intact” families (some dysfunctionality)  IQ scores: 20% less than 90, 50% within normal range, 30% greater than 120  Divorce tends not to be a problem unless parents of children constantly fight o However, there are many other variables that stem from divorce, such as a poor socioeconomic status Stereotypes about Crime Statistics  #1 criminal killer in Canada = impaired driving  National Highway Traffic Safety Administration o Individuals between the ages of 1-34 – impaired driving is the leading cause of death o It is the 8 leading cause amongst all ages  Impaired driving: 74,331 (charges laid) in 2002 o 94% classified as operating a vehicle with a BAC over 80mg  Sexual Assault: 22,136 (less than 6% of sexual assaults reported)  Arson: 13,504 (deaths unknown)  Homicides: 605 (25% involved firearms, 22% knives, 9% blunt instrument, 27% other) Profiling: Which Crimes?  Rape, homicide, arson, serial bombing o Serial crimes! o Can classify crimes by behaviour or motive  Arsonists – few caught, few witnesses, little evidence o Classification by behaviour  Serial arson: greater than or equal to 3 fires at different times, emotional cooling off period, and targets are random  Spree arson: greater than or equal to 3 fires in succession, no cooling off period  Mass arson: greater than or equal to 3 fires in same location in limited period  i.e. in a building, setting fires to different floors, etc.  Organized arsonists: set fires after stress trigger, planned, methodical, target selected  Disorganized arsonists: opportunists, target random, more evidence than organized arson  Spur of the moment – not much planning o Classification by motive  Vandalism, profit, excitement, revenge, crime concealment o Profile – “young white male – loner with history of problems” (p.73)  Know which classification is most popular for arsonists (motive or behaviour – look in text) What is a criminal profile?  “...biographical sketch of behavioural patterns, trends and tendencies”  May include: o Personality and motivations of offender o Signature o Sex, age, race o Sometimes called sociopsychological profile Jack the Ripper: First Modern Example  person who conducted autopsies on his victim came up with a profile of Jack the Ripper o “A man of great physical strength” (because he subdued his victims easily – deductive reasoning) o “A man of great coolness and daring” (crimes were committed in public places) o “...likely to be a quiet, inoffensive looking man, probably middle aged and neatly and respectably dressed” (because he did not call attention to self) o “...habit of wearing a cloak or overcoat” (because hid blood on clothes and hands) o “solitary and eccentric...without regular occupation” (Because too corrupt to interact with others) (although this one is probably false – people like Ted Bundy) Three Approaches to Criminal Profiling 1. Profiling historical and political figures (look in text) 2. Profiling offenders common characteristics o Similarities in personalities, backgrounds and behaviours of offenders across similar crimes – inductive profiling o E.g.) Miss Marple – similarity in crimes = similarity in offender characteristics  (un)reliability of self-reports  Childhood abuse not reliable predicto
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3310

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit