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Chapter 7 Cultural psyc.docx

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York University
PSYC 3350
Francois Lalonde

Chapter 7 Motivation (pp.240-250) Motivations for Self Enhancement and self esteem  there are cultural differences in motivation  self enhancement: motivation to view oneself positively  research reveals(conducted on americans) that people have a strong need to view themselves positively  also evidence for self enhancement motivations in measures of self serving biases (tendencies for people to exaggerate how good they think they are)  downward social comparison: comparing your performance with the performance of someone who is doing even worse than you (we do this to make ourselves feel good again)  upward social comparison: comparing our performance with someone who is doing better than we are  compensatory self enhancement: exaggerate how good you are at something unrelated to your setback so that you can compensate for the pain of your failure (ex.Acknowledge the poor grade in math, but you instead start to think about your excellent guitar skills)  discounting: reducing the perceived importance of the domain in which you performed poorly (ex. Poor grade in chemistry, and saying who cares about chemistry? I'm not going to become a chemist)  external attribution: we attribute the cause of our actions to something outside ourselves (ex. Unfair professor, or no time to prepare for the exam because of my cousin's wedding)  bask in the reflected glory: we emphasize our connection to successful performing others and feel better about ourselves by sharing in the warm glow of others' success (ex. Refering to the university's football team who has just wom as “we” instead of “they” after failing a test)  N.A. canadians have higher self esteem compared to east asians; also less tendencies for east asians to show self serving bias  possibilities for differences: o research on self enhancing tendencies among people of asian descent show a stricking lack of enhancement motivation  N.A. = external attributions for failures, more likely to seek downward comparison targets, compensate for failures by inflating their self assessments in other related domains  East asians= external attributions for success.....reverse tendencies as ^ o east asians really are just as motivated as westerners to evaluate themselves positively; however various biases in western research prevents us from seeing these motivations  east asians may be more motivated to enhance their group selves rather than individual selves
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