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Lecture 4

CuP - Lecture 4 (Jan 26).docx


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3350
Professor
Francois Lalonde
Lecture
4

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Development and Socialization (January 26th)
Humans have the ability of perspective-talking which allows them to engage in cultural learning
Cultural learning: from others & through others
Culture seems quite unique to humans
Socialization: process by which people learn rules and patterns of society
Enculturation: products of socialization processes (psychological aspects of culture that become
internalized through development)
Socialization/enculturation agents: people, institutions and organizations that ensure socialization
and enculturation
o Parents, siblings, other family, friends, school, church
Where were you sleeping as a 2-year old?
Own bedroom? (or shared with sibling) majority of class
Own bed, in parents’ bedroom – small amount
Parents’ bed - even less
Infants live in different cultures too
Sleeping arrangements vary across cultures
Why it would be good for infants to be provided with their own room
Why it would be good for infants to share the bed with their mother?
Shweder et al. (1995)
Indian and American adults decided how family members could be arranged in the bedrooms of a
house
In a 3 bedroom houses, how would you arrange a mother, a father, two daughters (aged 14 and 3) and
three sons (aged 15, 11 and 8)
- option chose by all of the American respondents
Justifications revealed some common underlying moral concerns
Both Indians and Americans: “incest avoidance”
Indian concerns: “protection of the vulnerable”, “female chastity anxiety” and “respect for hierarchy”
American concerns: “Sacred couple,” and “Autonomy ideal
Babies and their mothers
One big source of differences in socialization undoubtedly comes from infants’ interactions with their
mothers
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Any differences found in this domain is of great importance” these interactions mark the beginning of
children’s socialization process
Study by Keller (2007) Basic contact & interactions between mothers and their baby’s
Parenting interactions with 3-month-old infants in 5 cultural contexts, urban-middle-class Germans,
urban-middle-class Greeks, urban-lower-class Costa Ricans, rural Indian Gujarati, and rural
Cameroonian Nso
20 unannounced visits over 1 week
Videotaped mother-infant for 15 minute intervals
Behaviours coded for interspersed 10-second intervals
Amount of bodily contact
o was greatest with Nso mothers, then Gujarati, Costa Rican, Greek, German
In face to face contact
o highest in Greek culture, then German, Nso, Costa Rican then Gujarati
All mothers however did make a significant amount of face-to-face contact
Greeks and Germans made considerably more face to face contact than those from
other cultures
Warmth shown in response to infant’s positive signals
o Greek moms showed warmest response to infant’s positive signals; Gujarati moms showed
the least warm response
Warmth shown in response to infant’s negative signals
o Costa Rican moms showed warmest response to negative signals
Early experiences of infants can differ dramatically around the world. People’s minds develop in highly
different circumstances
Longitudinal research has yet to be conducted to directly link early infant experiences with adult
preferences and behaviours, it is not unreasonable to expect that these early experiences are critical
to shaping people’s development
When to potty train?
Okay to start potty training at 18 moths expert says
Anne-Marie Tobin
o TORONTO The Canadian Press
o Published Monday, Aug 8, 2011
deVries & deVries, 1977
o Digo people: Bantu speaking Muslims in East Africa
o Holds child in position to go to washroom and whispers in their ear a sound similar to that of
urination
o 30 of 34 mothers report success at 4-6 months
Traditions coming back
o Communication training become sensitive to the sounds a baby may make when they need
to go to the washroom
Cultural Variation in Children’s Psychology
Attachment styles
o Western researcher 3 kinds of attachment styles
o Secure Attachments:
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