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Studying Groups (2).docx

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PSYC 3430
Peter Papadogiannis

Chapter 2: Studying Groups Measurement in Group Dynamics Observation: a measurement method that involves watching and recording individual and group actions. - Willian Foote Whyte (WFW): used observation to study street corner gangs in Boston (The Nortons) - He focused on observable actions and avoided making inferences about what group members were thinking or feeling if he had no direct evidene of their inner states a) Overt Observation: openly watching and recording group behaviour with no attempt to conceal one’s research purposes b) Covert Observation: watching and recording group behaviour without the participants’ knowledge – poses no ethical issues as long as it does not violate people’s right to privacy c) Participant Observation: watching and recording group behaviour while taking part in the social process (WFW)  Hawthorne Effect: a change in behaviour that occurs when individuals know they are being studied by researchers Structuring Observations… Qualitative Study: a research procedure used to collect and analyze nonnumeric and unquantified types of data, such as text, images, or objects Quantitative Study: a research procedure used to collect and analyze data in a numeric form, such as frequencies, proportions, or amounts Structured Observational Method: a research procedure that classifies (codes) group members’ actions into defined categories – this information can then be quantified (frequencies etc…) Interaction Process Analysis (IPA)- Robert Freed Bales – a structured coding system developed by Robert Bales used to classify group behaviour into task-oriented and relationship-oriented categories (12 categories total) A (1-3): Social-Emotional area – Positive Reactions B (4-6): Task Area – Attempted Answers C (7-9): Task Area - Questions D (10-12): Social-Emotional Area – Negative Reactions Systematic Multiple Level Observation of Groups (SYMLOG): a theoretical and structured coding system developed by Bales which assumes that group activities can be classified along three dimensions: dominance vs. submissiveness, friendliness vs. unfriendliness, and acceptance vs. opposition to authority – 26 basic roles - Purpose was to better understand effective leadership, group dynamics, and superior team performance Reliability: the degree to which a measurement technique consistently yields the same conclusion at different times. For measurement techniques with two or more components, reliability is also the degree to which the various components yield similar conclusions - Interrater Reliability: consistency among raters - Test-Retest Reliability: consistency in results (correlation coefficient) Validity: the degree to which a measurement method assesses what it was designed to measure - Predictive Validity: the extent to which scores on the scale are related to, and predictive of, some future outcome that is of practical utility Self-Report Measures: an assessment method, such as a questionnaire, test, or interview that asks respondents to describe their feelings, attitudes, or beliefs Personality: refers to “factors” inside people that explain their behaviour – the sum total of typical ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that makes a person unique Personality Theories… 1. Trait Theory: people differ based on stable attributes called “traits” - The Big Five: o Openness to Experience-  High Score: Imaginative, Independent  Low Score: Practical, Conforming o Conscientiousness-  High Score: Organized, Careful  Low Score: Disorganized, Careless o Extraversion-  High Score: Sociable, Fun Loving  Low Score: Retiring, Sober o Agreeableness-  High Score: Soft-Hearted, Trusting  Low Score: Ruthless, Suspicious o Neuroticism-  High Score: Calm, Secure  Low Score: Anxious, Insecure 2. Type Theory: people can be sorted into categories (either one type or the other) - Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI): based on Jungian theory of personality, classifies people along 4 theoretically independent dimensions or types - First used in 1974 to enhance team effectiveness o Extroversion-Introversion Scale  E: Oriented primarily toward the outer world; focus on people and objects  I: Oriented primarily toward the inner world; focus on concepts and ideas o Sensing-Intuition Scale  S: Individual reports observable facts through one or more of the five senses (systematic, routine, factual)  N: Reports meanings, relationships and/or possibilities that have been worked out beyond the reach of the conscious mind (big picture thinkers, flexible with info) o Thinking-Feeling Scale  T: Judgment impersonally based on logical consequences  F: Judgment is primarily based on personal or social values o Perception-Judging Scale  P: Preference for using a perceptive process for dealing with the outer world  J: Preference for using a judgment process for dealing with the outer world Emotions: a positive or negative experience generally in reaction to stimuli that are accompanied by physiological arousal and characteristic behaviour – experiences giving colour or meaning to life - Emotions are short-lived and change over time, no cultural differences in perception of emotions - They occur in response to life threatening events and help us deal with important events o Basic Emotions: happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, sadness, fear, contempt Feeling: subjective representation of emotions Affect: refers to pattern of observable behaviours associated with emotions (facial expressions, voice pitch) Mood: refers to a pervasive and sustained emotional response that can influence a person’s perception of the world (long term) Role of Learning and Culture in Emotions… - Emotions are thought to be “group dependent”
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