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Formation (4).docx

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PSYC 3430
Peter Papadogiannis

Chapter 4: Formation What Factors Determine When a Group Will Form? 1. People- What? 2. Situations- When? 3. Interpersonal Relationships Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: - Cannot get to a higher level until you satisfy the lower ones - Motivational model 5. Self-Actualization Needs 4. Esteem Needs 3. Belongingness and Love Needs 2. Safety Needs 1. Physiological Needs * Inherent for our survival as human beings Joining Groups - Not everyone who joins a group is a “joiner”, and people who prefer independence over association are not necessarily “loners” - Due to differences in personality, motivations, and past experiences, some people are more likely than others to seek out group relationships Personality Extraversion: the degree to which an individual tends to seek out social contacts, receives arousal/energy from other people - First defined by Carl Jung- it is a particularly influential determinant of group behaviour - Introverts: tend to be withdrawn, quiet, reclusive, and shy – are oriented primarily toward inner perceptions and judgments of concepts and ideas - Extraverts: are sociable, outgoing, gregarious, talkative, and likely to prefer the company of others – oriented primarily toward social experiences, get energy from other people o Their affinity for being part of a group may also be based on assertiveness, because they tend to be influential group members, rather than quiet followers - Groups may also seek out extraverts rather than introverts, as their positivity may make them more desirable than their less cheerful counterparts - Level of extraversion tends to have culture-specific meaning Reticular Formation: extraverts have a less active reticular formation, which in turn leaves them less arouses, with lower levels of energy; this leads them to go to others to receive that energy to fulfill the biological need - Extraversion is revered in North America; introverts are seen as socially awkward (stereotype) EQI/MBTI Research: Compared this information with people in the workplace, found that extraverts thought they were more emotionally aware than introverts, extraverts were very different in terms of assertiveness and handling emotional stress… perception is reality for extraverts … Self-reports may be biased here- introverts have less opportunities Relationality: the degree to which one’s values, attitudes, and outlooks emphasize, and facilitate establishing and maintaining, connections to others - Higher relationality = more likely to seek out and more highly prize group memberships - More frequently play team sports, and seek jobs that will engance the wuality of their relationships with other people - Associated with both extraversion and agreeableness - “Connectors” (Gladwell) individuals who are so high in relationality that they have far more ties to other people than most people o Tend to be the hubs of more vast and far-flung webs of relationships How about the rest of the Big-Five? Men, Women, and Groups Research shows that men and women differ in their tendency to join groups, but the differences are far from clear - Women tend to be more extraverted than men, particularly on facets of the trait concerned with interpersonal warmth and gregariousness - Women report that their relationships are more important to them - Women tend to take on a more collectivistic interdependent orientation than do men However, although women may put more emphasis on their relationships, they are not necessarily more social than men - Research has shown that men belonged to more professional groups, governing boards, political parties, and military organizations than women, but women spent more time in groups than men - Women seek membership in smaller, informal, intimate groups, whereas men seek membership in larger, more formal, task-focused groups - Men tend to seek membership in competitive groups, to seek power  However, these sex differences may be very different among cultures where the women’s roles are more domesticated Social Motivation/Social Behaviour Three Concepts: 1. Need for Affiliation: the dispositional tendency to seek out others – tend to join more groups and spend more time in groups, they often fear rejection and avoid people if they are rejected 2. Need for Intimacy: the dispositional tendency to seek warm, positive relationships with others – tend to join more groups in order to find close relationships with others, tend to care more for others, do not fear rejection 3. Need for Power: the dispositional tendency to seek control over others, need to influence others * People differ in which need takes priority for them Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO): A theory of group formation and development proposed by William Schutz that emphasizes compatibility among three basic social motives: inclusion, control, ad affection. - Inclusion: the desire to be part of a group, and to be accepted by others – forming new relationships and associating with others; determines the extent of contact and prominence that a person seeks - Control: corresponds to the need for power, but also the willingness to let others be dominant – relates to decision-making, influence, and persuasion between people; extent of power dominance that a person seeks - Affection: the desire to experience warm, positive relations with others – to like others and have them like you – relates to emotional ties and warm connections between people; it determines the extent of closeness that a person seeks … Schutz believed these needs determine how people treat others, and how people want others to treat them FIRO-B Scale: Measures both the need to express and the need to receive inclusion, control, and affection - Expressed: the extent to which you will initiate the behaviour - Wanted: the extent to which you want or will accept that behaviour from others … MOTIVATION This tool can help you maximize the impact of your actions (OUTCOME- development tool), identify options for increasing your job satisfaction and productivity, and explore alternative ways to achieve your goals Rogers’ Self-Concept - Self: the person I think I am - Ideal Self: the person I would like to be o Congruence: the extent to which these overlap, Rogers believed that the larger the discrepancies between the two, the more psychological problems one experiences (threat to self-concept) … Self-concept is thought to be constantly changing and malleable Emotions: a positive or negative experience generally in reaction to stimuli that are accompanied by physiological arousal and characteristic behaviour (happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, disgust – pride, Emotions and Social Motivation - Approach vs. Avoidance, how does your history influence thi
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