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Structure (6).docx

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York University
PSYC 3430
Peter Papadogiannis

Chapter 6: Structure Group Structure: the complex set of relations that organize the group (norms, roles, and intermember relations and communication) - Can create strong, long lasting bonds that are resistant to change - Understanding a group’s structure can allow us to understand behaviours, values, missions, and goals - Often, structure makes interpersonal situations quite predictable Norms: emergent (self-organizing), consensual and often implicit standards that describe what behaviours should and should not be performed in a given context - Some norms are specific to a certain group, whereas others are accepted across groups - Provide direction and motivation, organize social interactions, and make other people’s responses predictable and meaningful - Provide order to a group, however each member is somewhat restrained to a degree by norms Types of Norms: 1. Prescriptive Norms: preferable, positively sanctioned behaviours – define the socially appropriate way to respond in a social situation (encouraged) 2. Proscriptive Norms: prohibited, negatively sanctioned behaviours (discouraged) – define the types of actions that should be avoided if at all possible 3. Descriptive Norms: how people usually act, feel, and think in a given situation (most) 4. Injunctive Norms: more evaluative, how people should act, feel, and think in a given situation – define the sorts of behaviours that people “ought” to perform, people who do not comply are open to sanction by other members of the group Organizational Citizenship Behaviour (OCB): behaviour that goes beyond what is expected - Altruism: helpful behaviours directed toward individuals or groups within the organization - Generalized Compliance: behaviour that is helpful to the broader organization The Development of Norms - Norms are typically implicit standards rather than explicit ones - Muzafer Sherif: studied norm emergence process by taking advantage of the “autokinetic effect”- the stationary dot of light will seem to move o When judgment the dot’s movement repeatedly, they usually established their own idiosyncratic average estimates, varying from 1 to 10 inches o When people made their judgments in groups, their personal estimates blended with those of other group members o Over time, the group members with the highest and lowest averages changed their judgments to match the group average (conformity) Characteristics 1. Consensual: shared among group members, rather than personal, idiosyncratic beliefs 2. Implicit: often so taken for granted that members follow them automatically 3. Self-Generating: emerge as members reach a consensus through reciprocal influence 4. Stable: once they develop, resistant to change and passed from current members to new members Transmission of Norms - Sherif confirmed that norms emerge, gradually, as group members’ behaviours, judgments, and beliefs align over time o He also placed a confederate (exaggerated judgment), and others conformed – this exaggerated norm lasted for many generations of replacements o He discovered that even though the other group members were no longer present, the individual retained the group norm – “internalized” - Norms do not just maintain the order of the group, they maintain the group itself Pluralistic Ignorance: when a group member varies their outlook, values, or expectations away from the group – ultimately conform Norms in Groups: - For a group norm to have an influence, it must be recognized and accepted by self and other group members - Norms of any group vary importance for individuals - Lower level of importance generally has less adherence - Less members that identify with the norm = decreased performance - Less members follow the norm = decreased performance Roles: the types of behaviours expected of individuals who occupy particular positions within the group – dictate the part that members take as they interact - People can fulfill the same role in somewhat different ways, and so long as they do not stray too far from the role’s basic requirements, the group tolerates this variation Characteristics: 1. Independent of individuals- 2. Flexible (to an extent)- each person may play the role different, but doesn’t stray too much 3. Structure interaction- create patterns of action Role Differentiation: the emergence and patterning of role-related actions (informal) - As the group develops, more roles emerge - Roles tend to become more specialized over time Types of Roles 1. Task Role: any position in a group occupied by a member who performs behaviours that promote completion of tasks and activities, such as initiating structure, providing task-related feedback, and setting goals 2. Relationship Role: any position in a group occupied by a member who performs behaviours that improve the nature and quality of interpersonal relations among members, such as showing concern for the feelings of others, reducing conflict, and enhancing feelings of satisfaction and trust in the group … The demands of these two roles tend to be incompatible with one another (Robert Bales) Bales used the IPA system to identify certain specific types of behaviour within the groups - Most people gravitated towards either a task or a relationship role - Task Role (“Idea Man”): offered suggestions, and expressed opinions, displayed tension, disagreement, and antagonism - Relationship Role (“Best-Liked Man”): showed solidarity, more tension release, and greater agreement with other group members Roles, Stress, & Well-Being - To prevent this, managers should write out clear job-descriptions, and adhere to these - MAKE ROLES EXPLICIT Role Ambiguity: unclear expectations about the behaviours to be performed by an individual – what ought and not be performed - Caused by a lack of clarity in role itself - Lack of consensus within the group regarding the behaviours associated with the role - Individual’s uncertainty with regard to the types of behaviours expected of them – leads to decreased satisfaction Role Conflict: a state of distress or tension associated with inconsistent expectations associated with one’s role in the group - Inter-Role Conflict: a form of role conflict that occurs when someone plays multiple roles within a group and those roles are not consistent with one another - Intra-Role Conflict: a form of role conflict that occurs when the behaviours that make up a single role are incongruous, often resulting from inconsistent expectations on the part of the person who occupies the role Role Fit: the degree of congruence between the demands of a specific role and the attitudes, values, and other characteristics of the individual who occupies the role – can cause many people to leave groups if role fit is not attained Group Socialization (Moreland & Levine): a pattern of change in the relationship between an individual and a group that begins when an individual first considers joining the group and ends when he or she leaves it. - Recognizes that individuals are often asked to take on roles that they would prefer to avoid - Newcomers must “learn their place” in the group and acquire the behaviours required by the roles to which they have been assigned - Mutual process… o Assimilation: individual learns to accept the group’s norms, values, and perspectives o Accommodation: the group adapts to fit the newcomer’s needs Types of Members 1. Prospective 2. New 3. Full 4. Marginal 5. Former (Ex-member) Phases 1. Investigation (Recruitment/Reconnaissance): prior to joining a group, individuals may study the group and the resources it offers, and part of this involves identifying the type of role they will be given should they join – the group in contrast, seeks to recruit new members 2. Socialization (Accommodation/Assimilation): should the individual decide to enter the group (ENTRY), their commitment to the group increases, and their socialization begins 3. Maintenance (Role Negotiation): the group and the individual negotiate the nature and quantity of the member’s expected contribution – the individual may have to take on roles he/she does not want to causing DIVERGENCE 4. Re-Socialization (Accommodation/Assimilation): once the divergence point is reached, the socialization process enters a new phase – the former full member becomes a marginal member, whose future in the group is uncertain – the individual and group may resolve differences (CONVERGENCE), or resocialization efforts may fail, and the final role transition may occur (EXIT) 5. Remembrance (Tradition/Reminiscence) Processes 1. Recruitment/Reconnaissance 2. Accommodation/Assimilation 3. Role Negotiation 4. Tradition/Reminiscence Transition Points 1. Entry 2. Acceptance 3. Divergence 4. Exit Generations 1. Traditionalists (1922-1943): - Hard work - Dedication - Respect for rules - Duty before pleasure - Honour - Do not seek feedback 2. Baby Boomers (1943-1960): - Optimism - Team orientation - Personal gratification - Involvement - Personal growth - Generally give feedback (presently the leaders – due to age) 3. Generation X (1960
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