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(9) Leadership.docx

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PSYC 3430
Peter Papadogiannis

Chapter 9: Leadership Leadership: guidance of others in their pursuits, often by organizing, directing, coordinating, supporting, and motivating their efforts; also, the ability to lead others Leadership Myths - One of the most observed and least understood phenomena on earth Is Leadership Power? - Many people assume that good leaders are those capable of manipulating, controlling, and forcing their followers into obedience o However, people who use domination and coercion to influence others are not necessarily leaders - Constructive leaders act in the best interest of a group with the consent of that group o Leadership is a form of power: power with people rather than power over people – reciprocal relationship between the leader and the led Are Leaders Born or Made? - Aristotle believed that leadership was an innate talent – their unique qualities predestine them for the role of leader - Studies of leadership development and effectiveness suggest that nurture, as well as nature, plays a role in determining who will lead and who will follow o Some people are born with qualities that predispose them to leadership, however most people can acquire the skills to become an effective leader Do All Groups Have Leaders? - Groups can function without leaders, however this role is usually the first to emerge in a newly formed group - Groups working for an extended duration on more complex tasks require coordinated action, as do those experiencing conflict - The size of the group is also critical: members of larger groups are more likely to rely on one of their members to make rules clear, keep members informed, and make group decisions - Leaders appear in groups when: o Members feel that task success is within their reach o Rewards of success are valued o Task requires group effort rather than individual o An individual with leadership experience is present in the group - Group of men more likely to include a leader, as they are more tolerant of inequality than women Do Followers Resist Leaders? - Some people begrudge the authority and power of the leader - Most people do not just accept the need for a leader, but appreciate the contribution that the leader makes to the group and its outcomes - This “need for a leader” becomes particularly strong in groups that are experiencing interpersonal turmoil and can sometimes cause members to see leadership potential in people where none exists - Members do not resist having a leader; instead, they conspire to create leaders both interpersonally and psychologically Do Leaders Make A Difference? - Leaders influence their groups in significant ways – research suggests that groups prosper when they are guided by good leaders - However, leaders sometimes take their group in directions it should not go, they act to promote their own personal outcomes and overlook the good of the group - Studies in organizations have shown a leadership effect of 20-45% - The Babble Effect: level of participation in discussion Do Leaders Make All The Difference? - Romance of Leadership: the tendency to overestimate the amount of influence and control leaders exert on their groups and their groups’ outcomes o This ignores both the limited influence wielded by most leaders, and the many other factors that influence a group and its dynamics What Is Leadership? Leadership: the process by which an individual guides others in their collective pursuits, often by organizing, directing, coordinating, supporting, and motivating their efforts – the process is dynamic - Stogdill (1950): the process of influencing the activities of an organized group in its efforts toward goal setting and goal achievement - Barrow (1977): the behavioural processes of influencing individuals and groups toward set goals - Bass (1990): leadership occurs when one group member modifies the motivation or competencies of others in the group – any member of the group can exhibit some amount of leadership Leadership is… 1. Reciprocal: involves the leader, the followers, and the group situation – the leader-follower relationship is mutual 2. Transactional: leaders and followers work together, exchanging their time, energies, and skills to increase their joint rewards 3. Transformational: leaders heighten group members’ motivation, confidence, and satisfaction by uniting members and changing their beliefs, values, and needs 4. Cooperative: a process of legitimate influence rather than sheer power – in most cases, the right to lead is agreed upon by most or all of the groups’ members 5. Adaptive: a “goal-seeking” process, as it organizes and motivates group members’ attempts to attain personal and group goals Followership: working effectively with a leader and other group members – the skills and qualities displayed by non-leaders - Kelley’s Theory of Followers: o Conformist Followers o Passive Followers o Pragmatic Followers: What Do Leaders Do? The Task-Relationship Model: a descriptive model of leadership, which maintains that most leadership behaviours can be classified as either performance maintenance or relationship maintenance - Task Leadership: focuses on the group’s work and its goals – the leader initiates structure, sets standards and objectives, identifies/positions roles, defines responsibilities… - Relationship Leadership: focuses on the interpersonal relations within the group – the leader boosts morale, gives support and encouragement, reduces interpersonal conflict, helps members to release negative tensions, establishes rapport, and shows concern… - Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire: group members complete the questionnaire and rate their leader on various items – the totals from the two sets index the two dimensions of leadership Leadership Substitutes Theory: a conceptual analysis of the factors that combine to reduce or eliminate the need for a leader – substitutes for leadership may “negate the leader’s ability to either improve or impair subordinate satisfaction and performance” Sex Differences in Leadership: - Men tend to be agentic – task-oriented, active, decision focused, independent, goal-oriented - Women are more communal – helpful to others, warm in relation to others, understanding and aware of others’ feelings Leadership Emergence Leadership Emergence: the process by which an individual becomes formally or informally, perceptually or behaviourally, and implicitly or explicitly recognized as the leader of a formerly leaderless group - Leaders often emerge when groups grow, are long-term, become more complex, or if there is a crisis Great Leader – “Great Man” – Theory (Carlyle): a view of leadership, which states that successful leaders possess certain characteristics that mark them for greatness, and that such great leaderships shape the course of history * Trait Approach - Examined the lives of respected leaders for clues leading to his/her greatness - Carlyle believed that people were born with these traits, and only the “great man” possessed them - Often focused on a galvanizing experience or admirable trait - The DNA of leadership – high energy, aggressiveness, dominance, self-reliance - Tend to be of little value from the perspective of I-O psychology – no universal traits and the situation often has an impact Zeitgeist Theory (Tolstoy): a view of leadership, which states that history is determined primarily by the “spirit of the times” rather than by the actions and choices of great leaders * Siutational Approach Interactional Approach: reconciles the two models of leadership presented above by asserting that traits and situations interact to determine who will lead and who will not Personal Qualities of Leaders Personality Traits: - When researchers used more precise measures of personality – and ones that were theoretically related to leadership – stronger relationships were identified - Extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness (closely related to the “Big Five”); the only “Big Five” factor that is not related to leadership is agreeableness Intelligence: - Intelligence and leadership emergence go hand in hand; tend to score higher than average on standard intelligence tests - However, leaders do not typically exceed their followers intelligence by a wide margin; too great a discrepancy causes problems in communication, trust, and social sensitivity Emotional Intelligence: the component of social intelligence that relates to one’s capacity to accurately perceive emotions, to use information about emotions when making decisions, and to monitor and control one’s own and others’ emotional reactions - An emotionally intelligent leader can see problems coming, are better able to read the politics of the situation, and can also communicate their ideas in more robust ways - They are also less likely to lose control of their emotions Skills and Expertise: - When groups work collectively on tasks, those with more expertise tend to rise higher in the group’s leadership hierarchy Participation - Those who possess the qualities presented above may not emerge as a leader if they are disengaged from the group and its activities - Leaders are active within their groups, rather than aloof (showing up for meetings, answering emails etc…) - The Babble Effect: quantity of participation is more important than quality of contribution The Look of Leaders Physical Appearances: - Leaders are often older, taller, and heavier than the average group member - Subordinates seem to associate height with power, and leaders tend to be more physically fit - Political and business leaders are generally older o 1% of leaders of Fortune 700 companies are under 40 o 81% are 50+ Diversity: - Leadership is not limited to any particular cultural, ethnic, or racial group, for the role of leader is firmly embedded in the traditions of most groups - Minorities tend to be less influential in heterogeneous small groups, and thus are less likely to emerge as leaders - Minorities tend to be underrepresented in leadership roles in business and organizational settings o In 2007, only 9 black CEOs of Fortune 500 companies Gender: - Throughout history, leadership roles have predominately been undertaken by men, while most women have been placed into roles that were seen as supportive in nature - With the number of women in the workforce increasing in recent years, more women have been placed in positions that require leadership skills - Both males and females express a preference for a male rather than a female boss - Women receive lower evaluations and fewer promotions than men - The lone male in an all female group tends to take on the leadership role, however a woman in an all male group exerts little influence Women - Female leaders are expected to take charge while delivering friendliness and tenderness that is prescribed to women; common shortcomings involves seeming too feminine or too masculine - Women are better suited for group leadership roles, as they are often more inclusing and less competitive Men - Somewhat more than women, men often adopt a managerial approach that trades on reprimand rather than rewards - Men perform better as leaders when there is competition present between two or more teams  Anderson & Blanchard (1982) have found that men have a higher rate of task contribution than women, and women have a higher rate of social contributions than men  Women tend to adopt participative and transformational styles of leadership, while men are more likely to enact autocratic and transactional styles  Other research studies have found that there is relatively no difference between men and women in both task oriented and consideration type leadership styles  Although results are mixed, a strong perception still exists in terms of leadership and gender role stereotyping o Men are still viewed as having the leadership skills necessary to become an effective leader Who Will Lead? Implicit Leadership Theory (Robert Lord): group members’ taken-for-granted assumptions about the traits, characteristics, and qualities that distinguish leaders from the people they lead - Each group member comes to the group with a set of expectations, beliefs, and assumptions about leaders and leadership - These cognitive structures are termed “implicit leadership theories” or “leader prototypes” - Members rely on their ILTs to sort group members into two categories – leader or follower Social Identity Theory (Michael Hogg): - Individuals who identify with their group include qualities that they share in common with other group members in their “social identity” - SIT maintains that individuals who most closely match the qualities of the shared prototype will be more likely to emerge as leaders Social Role Theory (Alice Eagly): a conceptual analysis of sex differences recognizing that men and women take on different types of roles in many societies, and that these role expectations generate gender stereotypes and differences in the behaviour of women and men - The expectations tend to favour men, rather than women as leaders - Role incongruity: women takes on a more task-oriented approach, however is then scrutinized for not being “ladylike” Terror Management Theory: a conceptual analysis of the implicit psychological processes thought to defend individuals from the emotionally terrifying knowledge that they are mortal and will someday die - The human mind has developed defenses against thoughts of death - TMT explains why popularity of the leader grows during times of tumult and crisis Evolutionary Theory: - Evolutionary psychology suggests that leadership is an adaptation: a heritable characteristic that developed in a population over a long period of time - Thought that leadership developed because it contributed substantially to the survival of people over time Leader Effectiveness Leader Effectiveness: the traits and behaviours of the leader led the group to the outcome valued by the work group or organization – not all who emerge will be successful Contingency Theories: seek to delineate the characteristics of situations and followers and examine the leadership styles that can be used effectively (relationships) - Any analysis of leadership that suggests that the effectiveness of lea
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