PSYC 3430 Lecture 2: Psych 3430 - Lecture 2 - 01_18_19.8
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Psych 3430 - Lecture 2 - 01/18/19
Disadvantage of Self-Report Tests
● Social Desirability - there are times when people will give socially desirable answers to
your questions - “what do they want to hear from you?
○ Faking “Good”
■ When you give an overly positive impression of yourself - ie. if you had a
personality item and it is a 1-5 scale. Maybe you are 4, but this job, they
want me to be a 5, i'll do a 5.
○ Faking “Bad”
■ You want to be lower than the amount you actually are - trying to get free
■ You don't want to go back to work
● Random Responding - when people are not motivated to compete self reports so they
will give random responses. - they won't take the time to taking the instrument seriously
and will randomly respond.
○ Lack of motivation - you don't care. You just want to get it done.
What Methods Do Researchers Use to Measure Individual and Group Processes?
● Observational measures: observing and recording events
● Example: William Foote Whyte’s participant observation of corner gangs
(published the book Street Corner Society in 1943)
○ Overt vs. covert observation – W.F. Whyte started off in covert
observation, but ended being overt
○ Participant observation – offered insight into the internal structure of the
○ Hawthorne effect – Western Electric Company – Hawthorne Works plant
● He observed the street corner gang for 4 years
● He did the first part with covert observation - across the street corner of this
gang - he would observe the leader and members from the window of his room -
he wrote notes.
● He could not hear them
● He decided to be more overt - he became friends with the - did more activities
■ You are not able to get the nuances, their conversations, their
■ They don’t act exactly the same with him
● Hawthorne effect - Western Electric company - hawthorne works plant (mayo,
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