PSYC 3430 Lecture Notes - Lecture 10: Stanley Milgram, Philip Zimbardo, Fundamental Attribution Error
Course CodePSYC 3430
ProfessorPeter K Papadogiannis
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PSYC 3430 F
Lecture 10, Power
Most exam questions will come from leadership, second from power, least from decision
Social power: the ability to inﬂuence others !
•People who are leaders have more social power; they have the capability to inﬂuence others !
•this is very common place. Something like a coach demanding that their athletes do
something, or a VP in a company making the workers meet deadlines. To meet goals,
people have to be pushed. How far can you be pushed till it is considered too much !
There are direct & indirect power tactics used by the leaders. !
•Indirect power tactics: are created by leaders, but it is the group & group structures that
inﬂuence this power !
•direct power tactics: the leader will tell the followers what he wants from them !
Jim Jones: if you didn’t follow the rules of the group you would be hit and punished !
Constructive vs destructive use of power (power can be used in a positive way) !
•the person uses their power as a leader to improve group eﬀectiveness !
•power is used to beneﬁt followers & the group: if the person can use their power to beneﬁt
the followers & the group as a whole, then it is constructive !
•the use of power is agreed to by the group: this the group saying yes or going along with it !
positive eﬀects of power !
•Leaders who are motivated & engaged with their followers & are proactive !
•they use positive strong emotions like encouragement and optimism !
•leaders that are very goal focused and task oriented !
•leaders that insulate others from inﬂuence, by giving them security. This is something like a
coach taking the blame for a player not doing well, to make the player feel better. When a
leader takes the blame, the followers like them even more!
Milgram’s obedience to authority (focus on the individual) !
•looked at the impact of punishment on learning !
•his research study had 3 types of people involved. The teachers, the researchers, and the
The teacher & learner were in diﬀerent rooms, & a confederate was hooked up to a shock
machine. Every time the learner got something wrong, they would be instructed to shock the
•All the experimenter would do is give 4 responses from ‘please continue’, to ‘you must
The results of the original study showed that 26/40 of the experimenters went all the way to
450 volts. 6 people stopped at 300 volts. This shows what kind of eﬀect leaders have on
followers. In the original research, the voice feedback did not start until 300 volts. !
When 2 individuals gave the shocks, 92% of people gave the shocks !
When 2 individuals didn’t give the shocks, 92% of people didn’t give the shocks !
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