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York University
PSYC 3430
Peter Papadogiannis

Chapter 4 • Groups form through a combination of personal, situational, and interpersonal processes • Formation depends on the members themselves  Some people are more likely to join together and when they do a group is born • Groups also come into existence when the press of environmental circumstances pushes people together rather than keeping them apart. • They also spring up when people discover that they like one another.  This attraction provides the foundation for development of interpersonal bonds Personality Big Five Theory - Outlines individual differences in personality o Openness to experience  Intellectually able  Appreciative of art and beauty  Emotionally expressive  Open minded  Imaginative o Conscientiousness  Responsible  Organized  Achievement orientated  Self disciplined  Planned confident o Extraversion  Outgoing  Friendly  Gregarious  Assertive  Emotionally positive  Active o Agreeableness  Sincere  Thinks the best of people  Frank  Concerned with others’ welfare  Modest  Sympathetic o Neuroticism  Emotional  Anxious  Easily angered  Self conscious  Prone to feel depressed or sad  Impulsive  Distressed Relationality - The degree to which one’s values, attitudes and outlooks emphasize and facilitate establishing and maintaining, connections to others. o People who are higher in relationality are more likely to play team sports and do so because they prefer to exercise with people rather than alone o Associated with both extraversion and agreeableness of the big five o Connectors  So high in relationality that they have far more ties to other people than most people Men, Women and Groups o Women:  Are more relational then men  Tend to be somewhat more extraverted than men, especially when concerned with interpersonal warmth and gregariousness  Remember more details about their relationships  More accurately recount events that occurred in their social networks  Report relationships are more important to them  More likely to show themselves with others rather than alone  Adopt a more collectivistic, interdependent orientation than men  Seek membership in smaller, informal, intimate groups o Men:  Belong to more professional groups, governing boards, political parties and military organizations  Spend less time in their groups than women do  Seek membership in larger, more formal, task focused groups Social Motivation Motivations  psychological processes that energize actions and guide group members in on direction rather than another o Habits, beliefs, feelings, wants, instincts, compulsions, drives o Prompt people to take action o Social motivations influence people’s interpersonal behaviours and include the need for affiliation, intimacy and power Need for Affiliation o The tendency to seek out others o People with a high need for affiliation tend to:  Join groups more frequently, spend more time in groups, communicate more with other group members and accept other group members more readily  They also tend to be more anxious in social situation because of fear of rejection by others Need for Intimacy o The tendency to seek warm, positive relationships with others o More likely to express caring and concern for other people o They do not fear rejection – more focused on friendship, camaraderie, reciprocity and mutual help Need for Power o The tendency to seek control over others o Those with a high power motive tend to take part in relatively fewer dyadic interactions but in more large group interactions (4+ members) o Organize and initiate activities in groups, assume responsibility and attempt to persuade others Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation  FIRO - A theory of group formation and development proposed by William SCHUTZ that emphasizes compatibility among three basic social motives:  Inclusion  need for affiliation • The desire to be part of a group and to be accepted by a group • Need to be accepted for others  Control  need for power • The need to dominate others and also to let others be dominant  Affection  need for intimacy • Openness • The desire to experience warm, positive relations with others • Desire to like others as well as a desire to be liked by them - Schutz believed that these needs influence group behaviour in two ways:  They determine how people treat others  They determine how people want others to treat them - The FIRO-B (behaviour)scale which Schutz developed, measures both the need to express and the need to receive inclusion, control and affection o Expressed and wanted  High, moderate and low  The more discrepancy between expressed and wanted, more dissatisfaction o Inclusion  Expressed  I try to be with other people  Wanted  I like people to invite me to things o Control  Expressed  I try to take charge of things when I am with people  Wanted  I let other people decide what to do o Affection  Expressed  I try to be friendly to people  Wanted  I like people to act friendly toward me Anxiety and Attachment - Some personal qualities may push people away from groups - Shy, socially inhibited - Shy people’s brains display heightened bilateral activity in the amygdale when they see unfamiliar faces  responsible for emotional responses including fear Social Anxiety - A feeling of apprehension and embarrassment experienced when anticipating or actually interacting with other people - Sets in when people want to make a good impression but they do not think that their attempts to establish relationships will succeed - Feel tense, awkward, uncomfortable, scrutinized - Causes them to disaffiliate  reduce social contact with others Attachment Style - One’s characteristic approach to relationships with other people; the basic styles include secure, preoccupied, fearful and dismissing, as defined by the dimensions of anxiety and avoidance o Defined by two dimensions  Level of anxiety  Degree of avoidance - Attachment Theory explains the way people differ in their relationships or attachments to others - Anxious Group Attachment  spend less time in their groups, engage in fewer collective activities and are less satisfied with the level of support they received from the group - Avoidant Group Attachment  Group is less important to them and they were more likely to claim that they were planning to leave the group. Experience and Preference - People’s prior experiences in groups may make them think twice before joining a group - Those with little experience may be too uncertain to take part and those with negative
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