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PSYC 3430
Peter Papadogiannis

Chapter 6 - Group processes are shaped by unobservable but influential, group structures - Group structure the underlying pattern of roles, norms and networks of relations among members that define and organize the group Norms - Shared set of rules that define how the group acts - Norms are the emergent, consensual standards that regulate group members behaviours Emergent because the develop gradually during the course of interaction among members Consensual because norms are shared rules of action Norms are social standards that are accepted by a substantial proportion of the group - Norms provide direction and motivation, organize social interactions and make other peoples responses predictable and meaningful Wear shoes in public Do not interrupt others Call the professor Dr. Help others when in need Do not lie to members of the group - Prescriptive norms o Define the socially appropriate way to respond in a social situation o A consensual standard that identifies preferable, positively sanctioned behaviours Andes Plane Crash food should be shared equally - Proscriptive norms o Define the types of actions that should be avoided if at all possible o A consensual standard that identifies prohibited, negatively sanctioned behaviours Andes Plane Crash Do not take urinate inside the airplane - Descriptive norms o Describes what most people usually do, feel or think in a particular situation o A consensual standard that describes how people typically act, feel and think in a given situation Arriving on time for a meeting Not falling asleep in a meeting - Injunctive norms o More evaluative o Describe the sorts of behaviours that people ought to perform o An evaluative consensual standard that describes how people should act, feel and think in a given situation rather than how people do act, feel and think in that situation Common Features Description Descriptive Describes how most members act, feel and think Consensual Shared among group members, rather than person, individual level beliefs Injunctive Defines which behaviours are considered bad or wrong ad which are considered good or acceptable Prescriptive Set the standards for expected behaviour; what should be done Proscriptive Identifies behaviours that should not be performed Informal Describes the unwritten rules of conduct in the group Implicit Often so taken for granted that members follow them automatically Self-generating Emerge as members reach a consensus through reciprocal influence Stable Once they develop, resistant to change and passed from current members to new members - Norms emerge gradually, as group members behaviours, judgements and beliefs align over time - SHERIF experimented the creation of group norms o Individuals own judgements differed from when they joined a group o After joining a group, the norm had been internalized (personally accepted by each individual member), and the individuals still retained the norm even away from the group - Pluralistic ignorance o Occurs when the majority of the individuals in a group privately disagree with the groups norm but feel that they are alone in their misgivings Roles - Coherent sets of behaviours expected of people in specific positions within a group or social setting o Leader o Outcast o Questioner - When the role occupant departs, the role itself still remains and is filled by a new member - Role Differentiationo An increase in the number of roles in a group, accompanied by the gradual decrease in the scope of these roles as each one becomes more narrowly defined and specialized o Number of roles in group increases, whereas the roles themselves gradually become more narrowly defined and specialized. Types of Roles o The role of leader is a fundamental one in many groups o Task role Focuses on the groups goals and on the members attempts to support one another as they work Any position in a group occupied by a member who performs behaviours that promote completion of tasks and activities, such as initiating structure, providing task-related feedback and setting goals Expert, secretary, organizer revolve around the task the group is tackling o Relationship role Socioemotional role Any position in a group occupied by a member who performs behaviours that improve the nature and quality of interpersonal relations among members, such as showing concern for the feelings of others, reducing
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