What Are the Critical Requirements of a Scientific Study of Groups?
1) Theories that organize knowledge of groups
2) Research procedures to test hypotheses about groups – e.g., Kurt Lewin believed that the
creation of a empirically verifiable theory was the essence of group science
3) Reliable and valid measurement
Assessment & Measurement
“Anything that exists, exists in some quantity can therefore be measured.”
Lord W. T. Kelvin (1824-1907)
Any measure, to be scientifically useful, must have reliability and validity.
Self-report measures: group members describe their perceptions and experiences
Emotions & Emotional Intelligence Group Assessments
Personality : Mackinnon (1959)
Personality refers to “factors” inside people that explain their behavior
The sum total of typical ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that makes a person unique.
Two Main Personality Theories
1. Trait theory: people differ based on stable attributes (called “traits”)
characteristics lie on a continuum
e.g., the Big Five
2. Type theory: people can be sorted into categories (either one type or the other)
There are many different personality inventories that measure traits or types The Big Five
Openness to Experience
e.g. – NEO, CPI, 16PF
Example Neuroticism facet: Anxiety
I am not a worrier.
I am easily frightened.
I rarely feel fearful or anxious.
I often feel tense and jittery.
I am seldom apprehensive about the future.
I often worry about things that might go wrong.
I have fewer fears than most people.
Frightening thoughts sometimes come into my head.
The Big Five
Meta-analysis shows that Consciousness, Agreeableness, & Emotional Stability are positively
related to performance in jobs involving interpersonal relationships
Extraverts, who are assertive, enthusiastic, and sociable are good candidates for team based
activities (Barrick, Mount, & Judge, 2001)
Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhart (2002) - used the five-factor model and meta-analyzed 222
correlations from 73 samples. Overall, the correlations with leadership were Neuroticism = -.24,
Extraversion = .31, Openness to Experience = .24, Agreeableness = .08, and Conscientiousness =
.28. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Myers-Briggs: based on Jungian theory of personality
Classifies individuals along 4 theoretically independent dimensions or types.
E: Oriented primarily toward the outer world; focus on people and objects
I: Oriented primarily toward the inner world; focus on concepts and ideas
S: Individual reports observable facts through one or more of the five senses
N: Reports meanings, relationships and/or possibilities that have been worked out beyond the reach of
the conscious mind
T: Judgment is impersonally based on logical consequences
F: Judgment is primarily based on personal or social values
P: Preference for using a perceptive process for dealing with the outer world
J: Preference for using a judgment process for dealing with the outer world
MBTI was first used in 1974 to enhance team effectiveness (Myers et al., 1998)
Team performance is facilitated by the diversity of personality types (Dilworth & Richter, 1995)
As one moves up the corporate ladder the MBTI is predictive of Leadership – Intuition/Thinking,
Sensing/Thinking (Gardiner & Martinko, 1996)
Emotions Is a positive or negative experience generally in reaction to stimuli that are accompanied by
physiological arousal and characteristic behavior (happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger,
Experiences giving color, meaning, and intensity to life
Darwin – inherent through natural selection (adaptation to survive and desire to
Approach vs. Avoidance
To escape life threatening experiences
Help us to deal with important events
Emotions are evolved signals about relationships (and, hence, universal)
what do we know about emotions?
Emotions are universal
Emotional experiences gives us colour, meaning, and intensity to life
Different emotions are marked by different changes in heart rate, skin temperature, blood flow,
We are able to interpret emotional information
Some people are better at it than others
It helps us with decision making
Feeling – subjective representation of emotions
Affect - refers to pattern of observable behaviours associated with emotions (e.g. facial expression,
Mood - refers to a pervasive and sustained emotional response that can influence a person’s perception
of the world (e.g. depressed mood) – more diffuse than an emotion
Role of Learning and Culture
in Emotions Paul Ekman – University of Californ