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Studying Groups.docx

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PSYC 3430
Peter Papadogiannis

Studying Groups Chapter 2 What Are the Critical Requirements of a Scientific Study of Groups? 1) Theories that organize knowledge of groups 2) Research procedures to test hypotheses about groups – e.g., Kurt Lewin believed that the creation of a empirically verifiable theory was the essence of group science 3) Reliable and valid measurement  Assessment & Measurement  “Anything that exists, exists in some quantity can therefore be measured.”  Lord W. T. Kelvin (1824-1907)  Any measure, to be scientifically useful, must have reliability and validity. Self-Report Methods  Self-report measures: group members describe their perceptions and experiences  Examples: Personality Emotions & Emotional Intelligence Group Assessments Organizational Climate Personality : Mackinnon (1959)  Personality refers to “factors” inside people that explain their behavior  The sum total of typical ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that makes a person unique.  Two Main Personality Theories  1. Trait theory: people differ based on stable attributes (called “traits”)  characteristics lie on a continuum  e.g., the Big Five  2. Type theory: people can be sorted into categories (either one type or the other)  There are many different personality inventories that measure traits or types The Big Five  OCEAN  Openness to Experience  Conscientiousness  Extraversion  Agreeableness  Neuroticism  e.g. – NEO, CPI, 16PF The NEO  Example Neuroticism facet: Anxiety  I am not a worrier.  I am easily frightened.  I rarely feel fearful or anxious.  I often feel tense and jittery.  I am seldom apprehensive about the future.  I often worry about things that might go wrong.  I have fewer fears than most people.  Frightening thoughts sometimes come into my head. The Big Five  Meta-analysis shows that Consciousness, Agreeableness, & Emotional Stability are positively related to performance in jobs involving interpersonal relationships  Extraverts, who are assertive, enthusiastic, and sociable are good candidates for team based activities (Barrick, Mount, & Judge, 2001)  Judge, Bono, Ilies, & Gerhart (2002) - used the five-factor model and meta-analyzed 222 correlations from 73 samples. Overall, the correlations with leadership were Neuroticism = -.24, Extraversion = .31, Openness to Experience = .24, Agreeableness = .08, and Conscientiousness = .28. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator  Myers-Briggs: based on Jungian theory of personality  Classifies individuals along 4 theoretically independent dimensions or types. MBTI Scales  Extroversion-Introversion Scale  E: Oriented primarily toward the outer world; focus on people and objects  I: Oriented primarily toward the inner world; focus on concepts and ideas Sensing-Intuition Scale S: Individual reports observable facts through one or more of the five senses N: Reports meanings, relationships and/or possibilities that have been worked out beyond the reach of the conscious mind MBTI Scales  Thinking-Feeling Scale  T: Judgment is impersonally based on logical consequences   F: Judgment is primarily based on personal or social values Perception-Judging Scale P: Preference for using a perceptive process for dealing with the outer world J: Preference for using a judgment process for dealing with the outer world MBTI  MBTI was first used in 1974 to enhance team effectiveness (Myers et al., 1998)  Team performance is facilitated by the diversity of personality types (Dilworth & Richter, 1995)  As one moves up the corporate ladder the MBTI is predictive of Leadership – Intuition/Thinking, Sensing/Thinking (Gardiner & Martinko, 1996) Emotions  Is a positive or negative experience generally in reaction to stimuli that are accompanied by physiological arousal and characteristic behavior (happiness, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, disgust)  Experiences giving color, meaning, and intensity to life  Darwin – inherent through natural selection (adaptation to survive and desire to reproduce)  Approach vs. Avoidance  To escape life threatening experiences  Help us to deal with important events Emotions are evolved signals about relationships (and, hence, universal) Basic Emotions what do we know about emotions?  Subjective experience  Emotions are universal  Emotional experiences gives us colour, meaning, and intensity to life  Different emotions are marked by different changes in heart rate, skin temperature, blood flow, & sweating  We are able to interpret emotional information  Some people are better at it than others  It’s trainable  It helps us with decision making Feeling – subjective representation of emotions Affect - refers to pattern of observable behaviours associated with emotions (e.g. facial expression, voice pitch). Mood - refers to a pervasive and sustained emotional response that can influence a person’s perception of the world (e.g. depressed mood) – more diffuse than an emotion Role of Learning and Culture in Emotions  Paul Ekman – University of Californ
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