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PSYC 3450

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Chapter 2 Neuron and GliaNeurons and Glia are cells in the nervous system and are broad categories within which are many types of cells that differ based on their structure chemistry and functionGlia outnumber neurons by tenfoldNeurons are the most important cells for the unique functions of the brain o They sense the changes in the environment communicate these changes to other neurons and command the bodys responses to these sensationsGlia glial cells are thought to contribute to brain function mainly by insulating supporting and nourishing neighboring neuronsThe Neuron DoctrineThe Golgi Stain o The Golgi Stain shows that neurons have at least two distinguishable parts a central region that contains the cell nucleus and numerous this tubes that radiate away from the central region o The swollen region containing the nucleus has several names that are used interchangeably most notably the cell body and soma o The thing tubes that radiate away from the soma are called neuritis and are of two types axons and dendrites o The cell body usually gives rise to a single axon The axon is of uniform diameter throughout its length and if it branches the branches generally extend at right anglesAxons can travel long distances a meter or more dendrites however rarely extend more than 2 mm in lengthCajals Contribution o Argued that the neuritis of different neurons are not continuous with one another and must communicate by contact not continuity o This became known as the neuron doctrine and the brother won a Nobel PrizeThe Prototypical NeuronThe Soma o Roughly spherical central part of the neuron o Is about 20 m in diameter o Watery fluid inside the cell cytosol is salty potassium rich and separated from the outside o The cell body of the neuron contains the same organelles that are found in all animal cells The most importantNucleusThe rough ERThe smooth ERThe Golgi apparatusMitochondria o Everything within the cell membrane excluding the nucleus is collectively known as the cytoplasm
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