PSYC 3480 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Sexual Orientation, Motivation, Longitudinal Study

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20 Oct 2016
Department
Course
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PSYC 3480
October 20,2016
Chapter 9 : Education and Achievement
Women’s Educational Values, Attainments, and Campus Experiences
- is a gender imbalances … better paying advantages seem to be saturated with males
rather than females.
Educational goals
Across ethnicities, adolescent girls have higher educational and occupational goals
than boys (Kleinfeld, 2009)
Middle-class boys plan to go to college; most working-class boys do not
- Largely influenced by the beliefs of parents. Starts with stereotypes of sons and
daughters which influences their attributions to their performances which reinforces
their beliefs in their children’s competencies.
- Directly advising their sons and daughter of what they can and cannot do in the labor
force or education wise.
- The child’s perception on their own competencies are influenced like verbal skills, math
skills and so on. This influences career choices people make.
- There is a professional imbalance on the courses studied by males and females
Educational attainments
Dramatic changes for women since 1985
Women now obtain majority of associate’s, bachelor’s, master’s and doctoral
degrees
More true of able-bodied women than women with disabilities
Campus climate
Chilly climate – faculty members display different expectations for women
students, or single them out or ignore them (Betz, 2008)
Biased treatment of women students
Biased coverage of course material
Microaggressions
Effects of chilly climate on women students and faculty members
Reflection of gender inequality of power
Campus climate
The academic environment for women of color
Primarily White campuses experienced as unwelcoming and unsupportive
(Winkle-Wagner, 2009)
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Racist comments by professors
Stereotype threat (Steele et al., 2002)
Individualist values of college may conflict with collectivist values of culture
Campus climate
The academic environment for working-class and poor women
Feel they have to hide their backgrounds (LePage-Lees, 1997)
Intellectual disadvantage
Challenges for women on welfare (Kates, 1996)
Higher education important route to higher income (Kates, 2007)
Campus climate
Single-sex institutions
More leadership opportunities, expectations, and role models
Women participate more in class, collaborate more, report higher levels of
support (Kinzie et al., 2007)
Increased self-confidence, less sexism (Mansfield, 2011)
Women more likely to pursue male-dominated fields and earn higher salaries
(Reid & Zalk, 2001)
Women’s Work-Related Goals
Career aspirations
Differences among women
Differences between women and men
No differences in prestige of aspirations or motivation to succeed
In high school and college, women lower aspirations, major in less
prestigious fields, end up in lower-level careers (Frome et al., 2008)
Women more likely to major in people-focused areas
Women less likely to pursue computer and physical sciences,
engineering
Differential encouragement
Stereotypes
Lack of role models
Discrimination
Career counseling
Remains gender biased
Girls discouraged from advanced math or science
Bias in vocational interest inventories and aptitude testing (Lonborg &
Hackett, 2006)
What can career counselors do? (Betz, 2008)
Advocate for family-friendly work policies
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