there are far more similarities than differences in gender
very few significant differences
Even those significant differences are very small.
Now we know that females can show aggression, not to same extent but still. And
that men can show caring. Not like before when it was taught that men where the
only aggressors and that women where the nurturing ones.
there are factors that can explain or influence the size of gender differences
SOCIAL FACTORS RELATED TO SIZE OF GENDER DIFFERENCES IN SOCIAL AND
1. Gender differences are largest when behaviour is measured in terms of self-report.
o why? Stereotypes and they are answering in a social desirable way. it is the
way they expect society wants them to answer.
2. Gender differences are largest when other people are present.
3. Gender differences are largest when gender is prominent and other shared roles are
4. Gender differences are largest when the behaviour requires specific gender-related skills.
TYPES OF RESEARCH
Longitudinal Studies: test a group of subjects for a long period of time:
o you are using the same people.
o attrition: when people drops out of study due to death or withdrawal.
o Maturation, history and expenses are some of the problems of this type of
Box-scores or counting:
o it is easy to do
o BUT it is not accurate or strong enough to give an statistical result.
o Strength: it takes not only the differences between males and females, it also
takes into consideration your number of participants.
o takes a hole group of studies and it comes up with a result for the overall
results of the studies. HELPING BEHAVIOURS
little difference: meta-analysis of 182 comparisons
only +0.13 effect size (males are just a little bit more helpful that
but specific differences (research studies)
men are more likely to help if helping would be dangerous
e.g: picking up a hitchhiker.
when specific skill are required
Both men and women are equally likely to mail a stamped letter that
appeared to be lost.
o Help someone selflessly, without any expectation of reward and with a
possible cause to one self.
o Stereotypically: males are considered to be more altruistic when danger is
o Circumstances: danger.
o but there are many cases when women are as likely to help:
danger to shield or feed those hiding
men and women helped at the cost of imprisonment, death.
o Taking care of someone who is dependent and needs help.
o stereotype: females are more nurturing.
but there are often gender similarities.
when the response is clear ( when a child calls out in pain both
mother and fathers will rush to the child)
however there might be some gender differences:
when situations are unclear women are far more likely to
response (children whimpers)
women score higher than men on self report nurturing personality
o women are seen often in nurturing roles: nurses,
teachers, case workers... that it is easy to accept the
idea that women are more nurturing.
o but participation is not enough, just because you see
women in the roles is not enough to generalize that
women are more nurturing than men.
participation rates may reflect:
social pressures. nature of choices available. (where far more limited for
women than men before, now not so. still in some
countries the choice for what women can do is still very
the social situation may influence conclusions:
women more nurturing towards others'
infant in the company of others (public)
men are more likely to help in more
o IMPLICATIONS OF WOMEN BEING THE NURTURANT ONES:
if a women deviates from the stereotype of being nurturing, some
others might feel that there is something wrong with