Class Notes (808,660)
Canada (493,333)
York University (33,539)
Psychology (4,070)
PSYC 3480 (140)
Erin Ross (11)


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York University
PSYC 3480
Erin Ross

PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN LECTURE: FEB 7TH, 2013 TOPIC: WOMEN AND WORK IN CANADA ➔ The majority of things that we do in a day is related to pay or profit (work) ◦ Paid Labor vs. Unpaid Labor ◦ Domestic Labor → take care of dog, doing laundry ◦ The average student at York works about 25 hours a week. We are already part of this process. We are being prepared to work in the future and we are already doing so at this age. ▪ We are not part of high paying high classified jobs. • Pizza delivery person • Server • Traffic director ➔ Women and Work in Canada ◦ 8 categories ▪ 1. Definitions ▪ 2. Participation Rate ▪ 3. Features of Participation ▪ 4. Earnings ▪ 5. The Gender Gap ▪ 6. Education and Paid Labor ▪ 7. Diversity and Paid Labor ▪ 8. Unpaid Labor rd ➔ Paid Profit → a little over a 3 of our 24 hour day consists of working. A ¼ of our day consists of sleep and the rest of the time is based on family, friend etc. ➔ Definitions ◦ Self-employed ▪ Work for profit. Take the money out of the business or profit. ◦ Many people work for pay and profit (paid labor). ◦ Unpaid labor → does not generate profit when working ▪ Volunteer ◦ Earnings ▪ Pay ▪ Profit ▪ Government Transfers • Receive a child benefit, employment insurance ▪ Interest made on money I have ◦ Full Time Work ▪ Work 30 or more hours a week over a period of time ◦ Part Time Work ▪ Under 30 hours a week ◦ Full Time Full Year Workers ▪ Work full time and 52 weeks a year including vacation ▪ Example: teacher can work 48 weeks in a year and have a 4 week paid vacation ◦ Cohort ▪ Group of people who share a common or set of common characteristics or experiences within a divine period of time • Age Cohorts ◦ People of different ages ◦ Apply names to generations of people ▪ Example: Baby boomers ▪ (1946-1956 → early baby boomer) ▪ (1956-1965) → late baby boomer) • Baby Boomers because the men were at war which means no children were being produced therefore when they came back they got busy fast. Babies everywhere very quickly. • In their 60's-40's ▪ Generation x • (1965....) • Lots of babies to very few ▪ Generation y • Millennium babies • (1980's.....) • Delayed departure from parental homes • Delayed in getting married and such • Teens today ▪ Generation Z • About 13 years old today • “Silent Generation” ◦ Cross Sectional Research (H Cohort) ▪ Surveying individuals from all different generations ▪ Common -easy to do ▪ Allows to make comparisons across ages of people ◦ Nursing, house work, mother etc → common jobs for women in the past ◦ As soon as women got pregnant they left the paid labor force and took care of the home and kids Today women have more choices than simply just going through the domestic work ◦ Cohorts center on choices ➔ Participation Rate ◦ Womens' involvement in the paid labor force is recent ◦ They have participated in the past despite the fact that it merely seems recent ◦ Less documents on those who did not participate in full time jobs → issue ◦ Refer to Figure 1 ▪ Percent of all women in the paid labor force by year ▪ Women are defined as years 15 and older ▪ Part time, full time, full year etc participation ▪ Just under 42% of all women participated in the labor force in 1976 ▪ 1986 → most involvement ▪ The drop right after → job loss, recession ▪ 2008 → the meltdown (economic crisis) and the effects afterward ◦ Figure 2 ▪ Red bars → women ▪ Blue bars → men ▪ Later 1970's early 1980's → highest involvement for men ▪ The graph shows that men have participated less over the years ▪ The drop in the end for men (recession). It had much more dramatic effect on men's jobs compared to women's jobs ▪ Most of the growth in female employment in the last 25 years took place in the late 70's into the late 80's. 42-52% rise in participation. ▪ The rise is happening more quickly for women than men ▪ Decline in men's participation → older men leaving the labor force • This generation retired earlier because they had better financial prospects. They could live comfortably on what they had made ▪ Auto for example → relatively good wages • Rise of unionization • People who could make a good living with low skill and low education • When these were taken away, men left the labor force and had no jobs ◦ Number of women in Paid Labor Force Canada divided by the Number of Women in Canada ◦ Number of Women in Paid Labor Canada divided by Number of people in Paid Labor Canada (refers to figure 3) ◦ Figure 3 ▪ The second calculation (just above) ▪ 1976 women made up about 37% of the paid labor force. ▪ 2009 48% of the paid labor force was made up of women ◦ Alberta → women have a high rate in the paid labor force ◦ Newfoundland etc → women have the lowest rate of participation in paid labor ◦ Geographical Location Matters ▪ Work ▪ Regional Attitude ▪ Education • 75% of women with a University degree and a number of women in community college → in paid labor force • Education makes a huge difference in a woman's likely hood of being in the paid labor force ◦ A current age matters (cohort affect) ▪ Refer to Figure 4 ▪ Age matters ▪ Women between the ages of 25-54 (prime employment years) • Currently more likely to be part of paid labor force • More women are participating in post secondary education • Women in the past (started in paid labor and then left for house and children) • Decline → delayed fertility ◦ Delaying the age women have their first child ◦ Now a days, women wait till after post secondary and when they have work ◦ Ages 15-24 → higher rates of paid labor in comparison to men ▪ This is because more women joined post secondary education while men started to drop out of the paid labor force ▪ Women were very open to participating ▪ There was a lot of openings for part time jobs as well ◦ Presence of Children ▪ Women dropped out of the paid labor force to be a full time mom ▪ 2009 • ¾ of all women with children under the age 16 living at home were in the paid labor force. In 1976 this was 39%. • Women are still less likely to be employed with or without children • 75% of 55 year old women → no jobs after having children compared to women who had no children • Preschool age children ◦ Women are less likely to be able to participate • This trend has dramatically changed ◦ Societal attitudes, day care etc ◦ Day care centers started when the men went to war and the women had to work ◦ Family Status ▪ 2 parent families versus Female lone parents • Lone parent → less likely to be in paid labor force • 46% of lone moms with children under 3 • Day care costs too much! These lone women have one income! ◦ Very few subsidized d
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