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PSYC 3480
Erin Ross

Introduction 1/17/2013 7:14:00 PM Leaders make others powerful. People radiate the energy and motivation to make others feel good about themselves and have sparkling eyes. Leaders motivate and impress others, and make a team. Definition of Motivation – an internal state or condition (sometimes described as a need, desire, or want) that serves to activate or energize behavior and give it direction Components of Motivation (Franklin)  Arousal – must be aroused to be motivated  Direction – a way to go, to improve.  Persistence of behavior – the key to success. Don’t always succeed the first time, must keep doing it until you get somewhere. Energy  Involuntary versus voluntary behavior  Potential energy is stored in the body in order to energize behavior  Kinetic energy is released energy that powers behavior  An analogy for Motivation o Drawn bow: motive and potential energy o Target: incentive for archer to shoot arrow Determinism vs Free Will  Free will: freely select your wants or motives o Motivation for a hunger strike to achieve a political goal (Ghandi)  Determined will: your wants or motives result from past history. If your abandoned when a child, you might now have trust issues. Source of Motivation  Evolutionary History, millions of years of natural/sexual selection shaped human nature  Personal History, person’s individual experiences since birth  Law of hedonic contrast: degree of pleasantness of a stimulus  Physiological and Neurological counterpart, reductionism: findings in one science related to principles in a more basic science.  Psychological variables, psychological needs and personality traits Importance of motivation  Inverted-U-shaped chart called Yerkes Dodson Curve (learn it)  When arousal is low or high, performance is bad. When high, you’re too uptight about it, and perform bad. Medium arousal does best. Don’t take yourself too seriously, or your performance will go down. The relationship of motivation and emotion  Emotions occur as a result of an interaction between perception of environmental stimuli, neural/hormonal responses to these perceptions (often labeled feelings), and subjective cognitive labeling of these feelings. Emotion is dependent on the cognitive interpretation of perception. Facial Expressions  Evidence suggests there is a small core of core emotions (perhaps 6-8) that are uniquely associated with a specific facial expression. These are universally identified when expressed.  A small number of unique biological responses that are genetically hard-wired to specific facial expressions  The process works in reverse: if you want to change your feelings (i.e, your physiological functioning), you can do so by changing your facial expression. Social Motivation  Be a part of a group or a valued member  Imitate positive models Biological Motivation  Increase/decrease stimulation (arousal)  Activate senses (taste, touch, smell, etc)  Decrease hunger, thirst, discomfort, etc  Maintain homeostasis balance Cognitive Motivation  Maintain attention to something interesting or threatening  Develop meaning or understanding  Increase or decrease cognitive dissonance (unrest)  Uncertainty  Solve a problem or make a decision Affective Motivation  Increase/decrease affective dissonance  Increase feeling good  Decrease feeling bad  Increase security of or decrease threats to self-esteem  Maintain levels of optimism and enthusiasm  Being bad to your dog for not showing love is a negative form of affective motivation Spiritual Motivation  Understand purpose of one’s life  Connect self to ultimate unknowns Behavioral theory of motivation  Classical conditioning states that biological responses to associated stimuli energize and direct behavior  Operant learning states the primary factor is consequences: the application of reinforcers provides incentives to increase behavior; the application of punishers provides disincentives that result in a decrease in behavior Cognitive Dissonance theory  This theory was developed by Leon Festinger (1957) and states that when there is a discrepancy between two beliefs, two actions, or between a belief and an action, we will act to resolve conflict and discrepancies.  If we can create the appropriate amount of disequilibrium, this will in turn lead to the individual changing his or her behavior which in turn will change in thought patterns which in turn leads to more change in behavior Attribution theory  This theory proposes that every individual tries to explain success or failure of self and others by offering certain “attributions”. Stereotyping has lots of attributions. These attributions are either internal or external and are either under control or not under control. Attribution Theory Internal External No Control Ability Luck Control Effort Task Difficulty Expectancy theory Motivation = Perceived Probability of success (expectancy) Connection of success and reward (instrumentality) If the reward is getting $1000, you are motivated with a good incentive to get an A Value of obtaining goal (Valance, value) Psychoanalytic Theories  Freud (1990) suggested that all action or behavior is a result of internal, biological instincts that are classified into two categories: life (sexual) and death (aggression)  Many of Freud’s students broke with him over this concept. For example, Erikson (1993) and Sullivan (1968) proposed that interpersonal and social relationships are fundamental, Adler (1989) proposed power, while Jung (1953, 1997) proposed temperament and search for soul or personal meaningfulness. Humanistic Theories Abraham Maslow (1954) attempted to synthesize a large body of research related to human motivation Maslow posited a hierarchy of human needs Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (chart) must know From lowest to highest- Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, need to know and understand, aesthetic needs, self actualization, transcendence. Social Learning Theory  Social learning (or observational) theory suggests that modeling (imitating others) and vicarious learning (watching others have consequences applied to their behavior) are important motivators of behavior. Social Cognition Theory  Bandura highlights self-efficacy (the belief that a particular action is possible and that the individual can accomplish it) and self regulation (the establishment of goals, the development of a plan to attain those goals, the commitment to implement that plan, the actual implementation of the plan, and subsequent actions of reflection and modification or redirection.  Personal Qualities Environment Behavior (this is a triangle, they all lead to each other. Transpersonal or Spiritual theories  Most of the transpersonal or spiritual theories deal with the meaningfulness of our lives or ultimate meanings. Abraham Maslow (1954) has also been influential in this approach to motivation. Other influential scholars included Carl Jung (1953), and Ken Wilber (1998) Achievement motivation Goal Theory has differentiated three separated types of goals:  Mastery goals (also called learning goals) which focus on gaining competence or mastering a new set of knowledge or skills;  Performance goals (also called ego-involvement goals) which focus on achieving normative based standards, doing better than others, or doing well without a lot of effort;  Social goals, which focus on relationships among people CH 2 1/17/2013 7:14:00 PM Emotion: Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others (also in many animals). It is inside feelings from yourself. Emotion and the nervous system Sympathetic nervous system activates with emotional arousal  Increased heart rate, respiration, perspiration and blood pressure.  Decreased digestion and blood vessel constriction  Stimulates glucocorticoid (hormone) release by adrenal glands Parasympathetic nervous system brings you back down and restores energy. Sympathetic sympotoms; pupils dilated, dry mouth, goose bumps, increased eart rate, digestion slows down, increased adrenal activity, maximum blood supply to muscles, sweaty, etc Parasympathetic; pupils constricted, salivating, no goose bumps, dry palms, decreased heart rate, maximum supply of blood to organs, decreased adrenal activity, stimulated digestion. Theories of Emotion: James-Lange theory  Nervous system activation occurs first and causes emotions. Our body reacts to the stimuli very fast, and feels emotions of fear.  We fear a bear because our body reacted to seeing one Cannon-Bard theory  Nervous system responses to emotional stimuli are the same for each emotion – can’t be feedback from physiological activation  We experience physiological arousal and emotion at the same time  No attention to cognition Schachter-Singer theory  Cognitive labeling of the physiological activation determines emotion experienced – physiological activation is the same for every emotion.  Cognitive appraisal – the asse Schachter Singer’s study (1962)  Had two groups of study, of introductory students. Had a grad students pretend to be a subject. Had 30 students waiting in a room. Injected with epinephrine (causing sympathetic nervous system arousal)  Some told actual effects of injection (informed), others uninformed.  Waited in room with grad student acting euphoric or angry. Everyone was aroused by the injection.  Uninformed participants leveled their arousal congruent with confederate’s apparent mood.  Concluded that in each situation, there was a cognitive labeling of euphoric feelings or anger, in respects to the grad students eruption.  The difference of the type of emotion, has to have a cognitive appraisal and label. Arousal level is the same, but ended up with two different emotions. The cognitive emotional levels is the same for both emotions, but the labeling of it is determined by the circumstances. Ethology  Innate expressions of emotional state have evolved from intentional movements.  In other words, the non-verbal expressions comes from evolution. It comes from our natural history, and therefore various animals probably have the same types of emotion.  Darwin thinks non-verbal emotions like a smile, comes from our evolutionary past, and therefore is universal amongst animals and humans. Physical Patterns of Emotional Response*  Use of polygraph (lie detector) has demonstrated that some emotional states indeed have distinctive patterns of physiological response  Hypothesis is that if you lie, you will have a higher arousal, and will be sweating. You can train someone to not get aroused, military and spy games. Some people are so relaxed that even if they lie, they don’t show anything. It’s not that reliable.  Some investigators look at feedback provided from facial muscles o Facial expressions may lead to the experience of different emotions o Are also correlated with distinctive patterns of physiological activation o Facial expressions are universal (even in blind individuals) Normal people look at the eyes, nose and mouth to judge emotions. People who have amygdala removed don’t really judge emotions, and only look really on the nose, and sometimes on the eyes and just about everywhere… even the cheeks. Judging the emotions has to do with the brain structures, mainly with the amygdala. Emotional Brain  Limbic system is deeper in the brain, critical for emotion, forebrain around the brain system.  Emotion stimulates activity in cingulate cortex, hypothalamus, and parts of somatosensory cortex, and the midbrain. o Damage to cingulate cortex reduces levels of tension and anger  Sites for different emotions o Inactivate medial frontal cortex and lose ability to identify angry expressions o Damage insular cortex and don’t experience disgust or recognize events that trigger disgust, e.g, nausea. o Aversive reactions to something unclean and disgusting, something that will make you sick. We see disgusting things for the evolutionary purpose to not approach and eat the disgusting stimuli Don’t have to remember the brain charts, and locations of certain things in thee brain. However, have to know the names of the labels of the brains, like the emotion of disgust is associated with the cingulate gyrus part of the brain.  Hippocampus is vital for memory.  Olfactory bulb is vital for sense of smell, connected to the frontal lobes and has to do with pheromones as well.  Amygdala is close to the hippocampus. Have to know this chart of brain structure. *Brain structure – associated motivational or emotional experience (pg 54)  Hypothalamus – associated with the 4 F’s. Pleasurable feelings associated with feeding, feeling, mating, and fighting, and drinking  Medial Forebrain bundle – pleasure and reinforcement  Orbital frontal cortex – learning the  Anterior cingulate cortex – mood- volition, making choices  Cereberal cortex (frontal lobes) – making plans, setting goals, formulating intentions  Left prefrontal cerebral cortex – approach motivation and emotional tendencies  Medial prefrontal cerebral cortex – learning response-outcome contingencies that underlie perceived control beliefs and mastery motivation  Left prefrontal cerebral cortex – approach motivational and emotional tendencies  Medial Avoidance Oriented  Right Prefrontal cerebral cortex – Withdraw motivational and emotional tendencies  Amygdala – detecting and responding to threat and danger (e.g, via fear, anger and anxiety  Hippocampus – Behavior inhibition system during unexpected events Right hemisphere more responsive to emotional stimuli than left  Damage the right hemisphere, and you will have less emotional responses  Especially activated by unpleasant emotions  Inactivate the right hemisphere, and people do not experience strong emotions and can’t remember feeling them  Crying or laughter activates right amygdala  Noting emotional expression in other peoples faces activates your right temporal cortex  Left hemisphere damage allows the right hemisphere to better detect emotional expressions. You will lose some of your ability for speech, and will compensate with doing better with the right hemisphere. The Prefrontal Cortex and the Right hemisphere  Damage to prefrontal cortex blunts emotional responding o Inability to anticipate long-term consequences to their behavior  Damage to right hemisphere causes emotional suppression probably due to decreased autonomic nervous system activity o Have difficulty recognizing emotional expressions  Facial expressions and verbal tone  Their own speech is emotionless. Stress and Health  Hans Selye advocate that there is a nonspecific response of the body to stress  Stress activates the ANS and hypothalamic (directs the pituitary gland)-pituitary(master gland, secretes hormones/messages to secrete the neurotransmitters, to produce adrenaline)-adrenal (HPA) cortex axis  Stress may produce psychosomatic illnesses o Rats who could run in wheel to avoid shocks developed fewer ulcers than rats who had no control o People with ulcers are more overstressed due to anxiety.  ACTH (Adrenaline cortisol Trophic hormone  Hypothalamus-anterior pituitary adrenal cortex axis. Know this. Stress Activates the ANS and the HPA Axis  The ANS reacts quicklty to acute stressors and activates the SNS  HPA Axis is slower to respond  Hypothalamus causes release of ACTH from pituitary and release of cortisol from adrenal cortex  Cortisol elevates blood sugar and enhances metabolism  Brief activation of SNS or HPA strengthens immune system  But, chronic stress results in high cortisol levels which is harmful to the immune system  Thus, chronic stress is worse than acute stress (longterm is worse than shorterm) Heart Disease  Correlated with feelings of hostility Social support correlated with better health  Keeps heart rate and blood pressure low  People in successful marriages tend to be healthier o Stronger factor for men, perhaps because women tend to find support from others more often than men Social and Personality Variables  Social support lowers death rate and stress hormone levels  Hostility associated with greater cardiac risk  Depressed individuals have lower natural killer cells (white blood cells) Negative Effects of Stress  Memory impairment, appetite changes, decreased sex drive and energy, and mood disruptions  Decreased B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells o Immunoredistribution hypothesis o Increased blood pressure potentially causing heart attack of stroke o Sudden cardiac death where sympathetic nervous system so activated it sends the heart into fibrillation o Decreased hippocampus volume and cortical tissue in brain  Probably cause by the increased cortisol Post traumatic stress syndrome  Occurs in some people who suffer trauma such as being severly injured, or witness traumatic events  Common among soldiers, rape victims, kidnap victims, and torture victims o Frequent flashbacks and nightmares about the event o Avoidance of reminders of the event o Exaggerated arousal in response to noises and stimuli o PTSD victims may be more vulnerable to infections and cognitive impairment Pain and emotion  Pain is adaptive o Congenital insensitivity to pain leads to repeated injuries and death  Extent of pain perception influenced by meaningful context  Pain pathway activates the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC) o Many connections to limbic system (emotion). Thus, we will experience the emotions of having pain. We can manage pain. It is how we interpret pain that affects us. o Responsible for the emotional aspect of pain  May also involve the prefrontal cortex o Planned responses to painful stimulation The Limbic System  The amygdala  Part of the limbic system  Helps coordinate physiological and facial expressions of emotion (especially fear)  Damage to amygdala removes fear and aggression in animals  Stimulation produces fear and aggression  Anti-anxiety medications have some of their effects at amygdala  Damaged amygdala patients do not respond emotionally to rewards and punishments The brain and aggression  Defensive aggression, someone attacks you, you attack back o Pathway from medial amygdala to dorsal periaqueductal gray  Predatory aggression o Pathway from lateral and central amygdala to lateral hypothalamus and ventral periaqueductal grey  Seizures in amygdala increase aggression  Tumors in hypothalamus (septal region) increase aggression  Decreased activity in prefrontal cortex correlated with increased aggression o Difficulty controlling impulses (antisocial personality disorder (APD)) Types of aggression  Offensive aggression – unprovoked attack on another  Defensive aggression – response to threat – fear motivated  Predatory aggression –animals attacks, kills and consumers Serotonin and aggression  Low serotonin associated with impulsive aggression o Particulary in prefrontal cortex o Alcohol increased aggression in low serotonin individuals (early-onset alcoholics) o Low serotonin and high testosterone interact to produce aggression o There does appear to be a genetic basis for aggression  Genes that control Heredity Testosterone and aggression  Males fight more and get arrested more than females  Males of 15-25 years old who also have the highest testosterone levels  High levels associated more with rape and murder than nonviolent crimes  Injections of testosterone caused women to increase heart rate when viewing angry faces Won’t ask about the slides that weren’t showed Serotonin synapses and aggressive behavior  Low serotonin turnover (release) in humans related to o Violent behavior, violent crimes o Suicide by violent means, increased suicide attempts and rates o Aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents o Greater probability of convictions for violent crimes Low levels of serotonin also associated with depression and psychiatric conditions not related to violence Hormones in the body – Cortisol, testosterone, oxytocin. Cortisol – stress hormone, associated with poor intellectual functioning, negative affect, and poor health outcomes Testosterone – Associated with high sexual motivation. Underlies the mating effort. Oxytocin – bonding hormone. Motivates seeking the counsel, support and nurturance of others during times of stress Escape Emotions: Fear and Anxiety Escape Emotions: Fear and Anxiety Fear is usually temporary, anxiety is more long lasting Startle response is unlearned fear Conditioned stimulus can enhance fears (shock) or signal safety (pleasant stimulus) Learned fears associated with amygdala  Inputs from vision, hearing, and pain  Outputs control blood pressure, startle reflex and modify interpretation of stimuli If amygdala is damaged in monkeys, they may lose ability to understand consequence behavior  Monkeys are tame and placid o Kluver Bucy - Pick up lighted matches, show less fear of snakes and more dominate monkeys  Lesions result in drop to bottom of dominance hierarchy because they did not act normally to threat gestures  Lesions also result in friendly behavior. Urbach Weite skin disease results in atrophy of amygdala  People do now show strong dislikes and rate pleasant and unpleasant drawing the same  People with amygdala damage rate all faces equally trustworthy and seek help indiscriminately. People with amygdala damage  Also have trouble detecting emotionally charged words. They all sound neutral to them, but still feel emotions normally, so damage may impair ability to process information with emotional meaning, they won’t show it. Physiological Needs 1/17/2013 7:14:00 PM Need A need is any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for life, growth, and well-being When needs are nurtured and satisfied, well being is maintained and enhanced. If neglected or frustrated, the need’s thwarting will produce damage that disrupts biological or psychological well being. Motivational states there provide the impetus to act before damage occurs to psychological and bodily well being. Physiological Needs Thirst – thirst is the consciously experienced motivational state that readies the person to perform behaviors necessary to replenish a water deficit Sex Hunger – brain needs glucose, most important nutrient to it.  Short term appetite could be due to sugar, for the brain needs sugar.  Environment could make us eat more or less  Restraint-release situations, sometimes we binge, sometimes we have diets.  Weight gain and obesity. Hunger (appetite) Thinner people have shorter lives and aren’t as healthy as those of average weight. Once nutrients, especially minerals, are used up, your heart stops and u have a heart attack The biological basis of weight regulation  The search for hunger/satiety signals o Feelings of hunger rise and fall with levels of glucose and insulin o Possible link to the number of fat cells in the body  Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) o Stimulation leads to hunger o Lesioning leads to self-starvation  Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH) o VMH lesioning leads to hunger o VMH stimulation causes an animal to stop eating o If VMH is damaged, the animal won’t feel full and continue to eat. Short-term Appetite Regulation  Pancreas hormone insulin helps convert glucose into fat  When glucose levels fall, insulin productions increases and we feel hungry.  Cholecystokinin (CCK) – satiety hormone produced by the intestine makes u full  Ghrelin – appetite stimulant produced by stomach. Makes you
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