Introduction 1/17/2013 7:14:00 PM
Leaders make others powerful.
People radiate the energy and motivation to make others feel good about
themselves and have sparkling eyes.
Leaders motivate and impress others, and make a team.
Definition of Motivation – an internal state or condition (sometimes
described as a need, desire, or want) that serves to activate or energize
behavior and give it direction
Components of Motivation (Franklin)
Arousal – must be aroused to be motivated
Direction – a way to go, to improve.
Persistence of behavior – the key to success. Don’t always succeed
the first time, must keep doing it until you get somewhere.
Involuntary versus voluntary behavior
Potential energy is stored in the body in order to energize behavior
Kinetic energy is released energy that powers behavior
An analogy for Motivation
o Drawn bow: motive and potential energy
o Target: incentive for archer to shoot arrow
Determinism vs Free Will
Free will: freely select your wants or motives
o Motivation for a hunger strike to achieve a political goal
Determined will: your wants or motives result from past history. If
your abandoned when a child, you might now have trust issues.
Source of Motivation
Evolutionary History, millions of years of natural/sexual selection
shaped human nature
Personal History, person’s individual experiences since birth
Law of hedonic contrast: degree of pleasantness of a stimulus Physiological and Neurological counterpart, reductionism: findings
in one science related to principles in a more basic science.
Psychological variables, psychological needs and personality traits
Importance of motivation
Inverted-U-shaped chart called Yerkes Dodson Curve (learn it)
When arousal is low or high, performance is bad. When high, you’re
too uptight about it, and perform bad. Medium arousal does best.
Don’t take yourself too seriously, or your performance will go down.
The relationship of motivation and emotion
Emotions occur as a result of an interaction between perception of
environmental stimuli, neural/hormonal responses to these
perceptions (often labeled feelings), and subjective cognitive
labeling of these feelings. Emotion is dependent on the cognitive
interpretation of perception.
Evidence suggests there is a small core of core emotions (perhaps
6-8) that are uniquely associated with a specific facial expression.
These are universally identified when expressed.
A small number of unique biological responses that are genetically
hard-wired to specific facial expressions
The process works in reverse: if you want to change your feelings
(i.e, your physiological functioning), you can do so by changing
your facial expression.
Be a part of a group or a valued member
Imitate positive models
Increase/decrease stimulation (arousal)
Activate senses (taste, touch, smell, etc)
Decrease hunger, thirst, discomfort, etc
Maintain homeostasis balance Cognitive Motivation
Maintain attention to something interesting or threatening
Develop meaning or understanding
Increase or decrease cognitive dissonance (unrest)
Solve a problem or make a decision
Increase/decrease affective dissonance
Increase feeling good
Decrease feeling bad
Increase security of or decrease threats to self-esteem
Maintain levels of optimism and enthusiasm
Being bad to your dog for not showing love is a negative form of
Understand purpose of one’s life
Connect self to ultimate unknowns
Behavioral theory of motivation
Classical conditioning states that biological responses to associated
stimuli energize and direct behavior
Operant learning states the primary factor is consequences: the
application of reinforcers provides incentives to increase behavior;
the application of punishers provides disincentives that result in a
decrease in behavior
Cognitive Dissonance theory
This theory was developed by Leon Festinger (1957) and states that
when there is a discrepancy between two beliefs, two actions, or
between a belief and an action, we will act to resolve conflict and
If we can create the appropriate amount of disequilibrium, this will
in turn lead to the individual changing his or her behavior which in turn will change in thought patterns which in turn leads to more
change in behavior
This theory proposes that every individual tries to explain success
or failure of self and others by offering certain “attributions”.
Stereotyping has lots of attributions. These attributions are either
internal or external and are either under control or not under
No Control Ability Luck
Control Effort Task Difficulty
Motivation = Perceived Probability of success (expectancy)
Connection of success and reward (instrumentality) If the reward is getting
$1000, you are motivated with a good incentive to get an A
Value of obtaining goal (Valance, value)
Freud (1990) suggested that all action or behavior is a result of
internal, biological instincts that are classified into two categories:
life (sexual) and death (aggression)
Many of Freud’s students broke with him over this concept. For
example, Erikson (1993) and Sullivan (1968) proposed that
interpersonal and social relationships are fundamental, Adler (1989)
proposed power, while Jung (1953, 1997) proposed temperament
and search for soul or personal meaningfulness.
Abraham Maslow (1954) attempted to synthesize a large body of research
related to human motivation
Maslow posited a hierarchy of human needs Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (chart) must know
From lowest to highest- Physiological needs, safety needs, belongingness
and love needs, esteem needs, need to know and understand, aesthetic
needs, self actualization, transcendence.
Social Learning Theory
Social learning (or observational) theory suggests that modeling
(imitating others) and vicarious learning (watching others have
consequences applied to their behavior) are important motivators of
Social Cognition Theory
Bandura highlights self-efficacy (the belief that a particular action
is possible and that the individual can accomplish it) and self
regulation (the establishment of goals, the development of a plan
to attain those goals, the commitment to implement that plan, the
actual implementation of the plan, and subsequent actions of
reflection and modification or redirection.
Personal Qualities Environment Behavior (this is a
triangle, they all lead to each other.
Transpersonal or Spiritual theories
Most of the transpersonal or spiritual theories deal with the
meaningfulness of our lives or ultimate meanings. Abraham Maslow
(1954) has also been influential in this approach to motivation.
Other influential scholars included Carl Jung (1953), and Ken Wilber
Goal Theory has differentiated three separated types of goals:
Mastery goals (also called learning goals) which focus on gaining
competence or mastering a new set of knowledge or skills;
Performance goals (also called ego-involvement goals) which
focus on achieving normative based standards, doing better than
others, or doing well without a lot of effort; Social goals, which focus on relationships among people CH 2 1/17/2013 7:14:00 PM
Emotion: Internal conscious states that we infer in ourselves and others
(also in many animals). It is inside feelings from yourself.
Emotion and the nervous system
Sympathetic nervous system activates with emotional arousal
Increased heart rate, respiration, perspiration and blood pressure.
Decreased digestion and blood vessel constriction
Stimulates glucocorticoid (hormone) release by adrenal glands
Parasympathetic nervous system brings you back down and restores energy.
Sympathetic sympotoms; pupils dilated, dry mouth, goose bumps, increased
eart rate, digestion slows down, increased adrenal activity, maximum blood
supply to muscles, sweaty, etc
Parasympathetic; pupils constricted, salivating, no goose bumps, dry palms,
decreased heart rate, maximum supply of blood to organs, decreased
adrenal activity, stimulated digestion.
Theories of Emotion:
Nervous system activation occurs first and causes emotions. Our
body reacts to the stimuli very fast, and feels emotions of fear.
We fear a bear because our body reacted to seeing one
Nervous system responses to emotional stimuli are the same for
each emotion – can’t be feedback from physiological activation
We experience physiological arousal and emotion at the same time
No attention to cognition
Schachter-Singer theory Cognitive labeling of the physiological activation determines
emotion experienced – physiological activation is the same for
Cognitive appraisal – the asse
Schachter Singer’s study (1962)
Had two groups of study, of introductory students. Had a grad
students pretend to be a subject. Had 30 students waiting in a
room. Injected with epinephrine (causing sympathetic nervous
Some told actual effects of injection (informed), others uninformed.
Waited in room with grad student acting euphoric or angry.
Everyone was aroused by the injection.
Uninformed participants leveled their arousal congruent with
confederate’s apparent mood.
Concluded that in each situation, there was a cognitive labeling of
euphoric feelings or anger, in respects to the grad students
The difference of the type of emotion, has to have a cognitive
appraisal and label. Arousal level is the same, but ended up with
two different emotions. The cognitive emotional levels is the same
for both emotions, but the labeling of it is determined by the
Innate expressions of emotional state have evolved from intentional
In other words, the non-verbal expressions comes from evolution.
It comes from our natural history, and therefore various animals
probably have the same types of emotion.
Darwin thinks non-verbal emotions like a smile, comes from our
evolutionary past, and therefore is universal amongst animals and
Physical Patterns of Emotional Response* Use of polygraph (lie detector) has demonstrated that some
emotional states indeed have distinctive patterns of physiological
Hypothesis is that if you lie, you will have a higher arousal, and will
be sweating. You can train someone to not get aroused, military
and spy games. Some people are so relaxed that even if they lie,
they don’t show anything. It’s not that reliable.
Some investigators look at feedback provided from facial muscles
o Facial expressions may lead to the experience of different
o Are also correlated with distinctive patterns of physiological
o Facial expressions are universal (even in blind individuals)
Normal people look at the eyes, nose and mouth to judge emotions.
People who have amygdala removed don’t really judge emotions, and only
look really on the nose, and sometimes on the eyes and just about
everywhere… even the cheeks.
Judging the emotions has to do with the brain structures, mainly with the
Limbic system is deeper in the brain, critical for emotion, forebrain
around the brain system.
Emotion stimulates activity in cingulate cortex, hypothalamus, and
parts of somatosensory cortex, and the midbrain.
o Damage to cingulate cortex reduces levels of tension and
Sites for different emotions
o Inactivate medial frontal cortex and lose ability to identify
o Damage insular cortex and don’t experience disgust or
recognize events that trigger disgust, e.g, nausea.
o Aversive reactions to something unclean and disgusting,
something that will make you sick. We see disgusting things for the evolutionary purpose to not approach and eat the
Don’t have to remember the brain charts, and locations of certain things in
thee brain. However, have to know the names of the labels of the brains,
like the emotion of disgust is associated with the cingulate gyrus part of the
Hippocampus is vital for memory.
Olfactory bulb is vital for sense of smell, connected to the frontal
lobes and has to do with pheromones as well.
Amygdala is close to the hippocampus.
Have to know this chart of brain structure.
*Brain structure – associated motivational or emotional experience (pg 54)
Hypothalamus – associated with the 4 F’s. Pleasurable feelings
associated with feeding, feeling, mating, and fighting, and drinking
Medial Forebrain bundle – pleasure and reinforcement
Orbital frontal cortex – learning the
Anterior cingulate cortex – mood- volition, making choices
Cereberal cortex (frontal lobes) – making plans, setting goals,
Left prefrontal cerebral cortex – approach motivation and emotional
Medial prefrontal cerebral cortex – learning response-outcome
contingencies that underlie perceived control beliefs and mastery
Left prefrontal cerebral cortex – approach motivational and
Right Prefrontal cerebral cortex – Withdraw motivational and
Amygdala – detecting and responding to threat and danger (e.g, via
fear, anger and anxiety Hippocampus – Behavior inhibition system during unexpected
Right hemisphere more responsive to emotional stimuli than left
Damage the right hemisphere, and you will have less emotional
Especially activated by unpleasant emotions
Inactivate the right hemisphere, and people do not experience
strong emotions and can’t remember feeling them
Crying or laughter activates right amygdala
Noting emotional expression in other peoples faces activates your
right temporal cortex
Left hemisphere damage allows the right hemisphere to better
detect emotional expressions. You will lose some of your ability for
speech, and will compensate with doing better with the right
The Prefrontal Cortex and the Right hemisphere
Damage to prefrontal cortex blunts emotional responding
o Inability to anticipate long-term consequences to their
Damage to right hemisphere causes emotional suppression
probably due to decreased autonomic nervous system activity
o Have difficulty recognizing emotional expressions
Facial expressions and verbal tone
Their own speech is emotionless.
Stress and Health
Hans Selye advocate that there is a nonspecific response of the
body to stress
Stress activates the ANS and hypothalamic (directs the pituitary
gland)-pituitary(master gland, secretes hormones/messages to
secrete the neurotransmitters, to produce adrenaline)-adrenal
(HPA) cortex axis
Stress may produce psychosomatic illnesses o Rats who could run in wheel to avoid shocks developed fewer
ulcers than rats who had no control
o People with ulcers are more overstressed due to anxiety.
ACTH (Adrenaline cortisol Trophic hormone
Hypothalamus-anterior pituitary adrenal cortex axis. Know this.
Stress Activates the ANS and the HPA Axis
The ANS reacts quicklty to acute stressors and activates the SNS
HPA Axis is slower to respond
Hypothalamus causes release of ACTH from pituitary and release of
cortisol from adrenal cortex
Cortisol elevates blood sugar and enhances metabolism
Brief activation of SNS or HPA strengthens immune system
But, chronic stress results in high cortisol levels which is harmful to
the immune system
Thus, chronic stress is worse than acute stress (longterm is worse
Correlated with feelings of hostility
Social support correlated with better health
Keeps heart rate and blood pressure low
People in successful marriages tend to be healthier
o Stronger factor for men, perhaps because women tend to find
support from others more often than men
Social and Personality Variables
Social support lowers death rate and stress hormone levels
Hostility associated with greater cardiac risk
Depressed individuals have lower natural killer cells (white blood
Negative Effects of Stress
Memory impairment, appetite changes, decreased sex drive and
energy, and mood disruptions
Decreased B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells o Immunoredistribution hypothesis
o Increased blood pressure potentially causing heart attack of
o Sudden cardiac death where sympathetic nervous system so
activated it sends the heart into fibrillation
o Decreased hippocampus volume and cortical tissue in brain
Probably cause by the increased cortisol
Post traumatic stress syndrome
Occurs in some people who suffer trauma such as being severly
injured, or witness traumatic events
Common among soldiers, rape victims, kidnap victims, and torture
o Frequent flashbacks and nightmares about the event
o Avoidance of reminders of the event
o Exaggerated arousal in response to noises and stimuli
o PTSD victims may be more vulnerable to infections and
Pain and emotion
Pain is adaptive
o Congenital insensitivity to pain leads to repeated injuries and
Extent of pain perception influenced by meaningful context
Pain pathway activates the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC)
o Many connections to limbic system (emotion). Thus, we will
experience the emotions of having pain. We can manage
pain. It is how we interpret pain that affects us.
o Responsible for the emotional aspect of pain
May also involve the prefrontal cortex
o Planned responses to painful stimulation
The Limbic System
The amygdala Part of the limbic system
Helps coordinate physiological and facial expressions of emotion
Damage to amygdala removes fear and aggression in animals
Stimulation produces fear and aggression
Anti-anxiety medications have some of their effects at amygdala
Damaged amygdala patients do not respond emotionally to rewards
The brain and aggression
Defensive aggression, someone attacks you, you attack back
o Pathway from medial amygdala to dorsal periaqueductal gray
o Pathway from lateral and central amygdala to lateral
hypothalamus and ventral periaqueductal grey
Seizures in amygdala increase aggression
Tumors in hypothalamus (septal region) increase aggression
Decreased activity in prefrontal cortex correlated with increased
o Difficulty controlling impulses (antisocial personality disorder
Types of aggression
Offensive aggression – unprovoked attack on another
Defensive aggression – response to threat – fear motivated
Predatory aggression –animals attacks, kills and consumers
Serotonin and aggression
Low serotonin associated with impulsive aggression
o Particulary in prefrontal cortex
o Alcohol increased aggression in low serotonin individuals
o Low serotonin and high testosterone interact to produce
o There does appear to be a genetic basis for aggression
Genes that control Heredity
Testosterone and aggression
Males fight more and get arrested more than females
Males of 15-25 years old who also have the highest testosterone
High levels associated more with rape and murder than nonviolent
Injections of testosterone caused women to increase heart rate
when viewing angry faces
Won’t ask about the slides that weren’t showed
Serotonin synapses and aggressive behavior
Low serotonin turnover (release) in humans related to
o Violent behavior, violent crimes
o Suicide by violent means, increased suicide attempts and
o Aggressive behaviors among children and adolescents
o Greater probability of convictions for violent crimes
Low levels of serotonin also associated with depression and psychiatric
conditions not related to violence
Hormones in the body – Cortisol, testosterone, oxytocin.
Cortisol – stress hormone, associated with poor intellectual functioning,
negative affect, and poor health outcomes
Testosterone – Associated with high sexual motivation. Underlies the mating
Oxytocin – bonding hormone. Motivates seeking the counsel, support and
nurturance of others during times of stress
Escape Emotions: Fear and Anxiety
Escape Emotions: Fear and Anxiety
Fear is usually temporary, anxiety is more long lasting Startle response is unlearned fear
Conditioned stimulus can enhance fears (shock) or signal safety (pleasant
Learned fears associated with amygdala
Inputs from vision, hearing, and pain
Outputs control blood pressure, startle reflex and modify
interpretation of stimuli
If amygdala is damaged in monkeys, they may lose ability to understand
Monkeys are tame and placid
o Kluver Bucy - Pick up lighted matches, show less fear of
snakes and more dominate monkeys
Lesions result in drop to bottom of dominance hierarchy because
they did not act normally to threat gestures
Lesions also result in friendly behavior.
Urbach Weite skin disease results in atrophy of amygdala
People do now show strong dislikes and rate pleasant and
unpleasant drawing the same
People with amygdala damage rate all faces equally trustworthy
and seek help indiscriminately.
People with amygdala damage
Also have trouble detecting emotionally charged words. They all
sound neutral to them, but still feel emotions normally, so damage
may impair ability to process information with emotional meaning,
they won’t show it. Physiological Needs 1/17/2013 7:14:00 PM
A need is any condition within the person that is essential and necessary for
life, growth, and well-being
When needs are nurtured and satisfied, well being is maintained and
If neglected or frustrated, the need’s thwarting will produce damage that
disrupts biological or psychological well being.
Motivational states there provide the impetus to act before damage occurs to
psychological and bodily well being.
Thirst – thirst is the consciously experienced motivational state that readies
the person to perform behaviors necessary to replenish a water deficit
Hunger – brain needs glucose, most important nutrient to it.
Short term appetite could be due to sugar, for the brain needs
Environment could make us eat more or less
Restraint-release situations, sometimes we binge, sometimes we
Weight gain and obesity.
Thinner people have shorter lives and aren’t as healthy as those of average
weight. Once nutrients, especially minerals, are used up, your heart stops
and u have a heart attack
The biological basis of weight regulation
The search for hunger/satiety signals
o Feelings of hunger rise and fall with levels of glucose and
o Possible link to the number of fat cells in the body
Lateral Hypothalamus (LH) o Stimulation leads to hunger
o Lesioning leads to self-starvation
Ventromedial Hypothalamus (VMH)
o VMH lesioning leads to hunger
o VMH stimulation causes an animal to stop eating
o If VMH is damaged, the animal won’t feel full and continue to
Short-term Appetite Regulation
Pancreas hormone insulin helps convert glucose into fat
When glucose levels fall, insulin productions increases and we feel
Cholecystokinin (CCK) – satiety hormone produced by the intestine
makes u full
Ghrelin – appetite stimulant produced by stomach. Makes you