Lecture 5 – Women’s psych.docx

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16 Apr 2012
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Lecture 5 Women‟s psych 2/7/2012 6:29:00 PM
Welcome
This week
Chapter 6 -Personality comparisons
Chapter 8- Lifestyles
Feb. 17, you will be studying
Chapter 7 - Women and Work. How do stereotypes relate to the
workplace? The handout will be given out in class Feb. 17th.
Gender Comparisons in Social and Personality Characteristics
Far more similarities
Very few significant differences
even those significant differences are very small
Often said Aggression and Nurturance
BUT NOW!!
Factors that can influence the size of gender differences
(confounds)
o Size of perceived differences can appear to be larger than
they really are
Social Factors Related to Size of Gender Differences in Social and Personality
Characteristics
1. Gender differences are largest when behavior is measured in
terms of self-report.
o Not because people are trying to lie but they have a tendency
to want to show themselves in a good light ---- so they may
exaggerate
Women may show themselves more prone to nurture
because that‟s what they are „supposed to be doing‟
2. Gender differences are largest when other people are present.
o Expected to act a in a certain way
o People act In a way society expects them to act
3. Gender differences are largest when gender is prominent and
other shared roles are minimized.
4. Gender differences are largest when the behavior requires
specific gender-related skills.
Types of Research
(1)Longitudinal Studies
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o same group of people over a different period of time
Strengths
Consistent
Problems
Sample size smaller
Rehearsal problems
People drop out
Time consuming
People can change over time
Very expensive
(2)Box-score or counting
o take a bunch of studies and look at how many women scored
& how many men scored
o Strengths
Dead easy
o Problems
When you use it to make a conclusion you are not
taking into consideration the sample size of the studies
you have collected ---- unless you know how many
people are in the study it does not mean anything
(3) Meta-analysis
o makes use of effect size (which answers the problem of the
box score) (a statistic (d) which gives you a number that
takes into consideration how many people are in the study
and what the difference between men & women is)
o problem
how do you pick the studies to go into the meta
analysis
should randomly select them
Gender Similarities Hypothesis
What it is.
o Hypothesis is that there is far more similarities between
males & females than differences
Uses effect sizes and meta-analysis
Interpretation
Helping Behaviours
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General Helpfulness
o To give someone assistance
Stereotype
o Females are more helpful
o Little difference when you look at the studies
Meta-analysis of 182 comparisons
Only 0.13 effect size hardly any difference at all
o But, specific differences (research studies)
men are more likely to help if helping would be
dangerous
e.g., picking up a hitchhiker
when specific skill or knowledge is required
e.g., a man is more likely to help change a tire (?)
Both men and women are equally likely to mail a
stamped letter that appeared to be lost
Altruism
Definition:
o helping someone without having any expectations and risking
yourself
Circumstances
o Danger
Stereotype:
o Males are more altruistic
But: There are many cases where women are as likely to help
o Wartime
Danger to shield or feed those hiding
Men and women helped at the risk of
imprisonment themselves, or, death
Nurturance
Definition:
o 1-providing nourishment and care to someone
o 2-helping someone who Is not able to take care of
themselves
Stereotype:
o women were the nurtures
But Often gender similarities
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