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Lecture 5

Lecture 5 - Gender Comparisons in Social and Personality Characteristics.docx

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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

Lecture 5 1 October 25th, 2011 Gender Comparisons in Social and Personality Characteristics - More similarities than differences - Even if there are differences, the significant differences are very small - Confounds = something else other than the independent variable that can account for the size of the difference Social Factors Related to Size of Gender Differences in Social and Personality Characteristics 1. Gender differences are largest when behaviour is measured in terms of self-report - Social desirability = inclined to answer the appropriate answer/what’s socially appropriate 2. Gender differences are largest when other people are present - We act in the way that they expect us to act 3. Gender differences are largest when gender is prominent and other shared roles are minimized - At a heterosexual bar, important to know whether you’re male or female - At a conference for family doctors, not that important to know you’re a male or female 4. Gender differences are largest when the behaviour requires specific gender-related skills - Ex: men working in mechanics; women cooking Types of Research 1. Longitudinal studies - Study over a long period of time. Each time we get the same subject - Strengths o Using the same subject o See the changes over time for the same individual - Problems o People drop out = “mortality” o Very time consuming, take a long time before results o Could be a practice effect – done the study and do it again o Hard to control because things can change over time o Very expensive to keep track of the people - Ex: ask if you are afraid of your partner 2. Box-score or counting - “how many of…differences/similarities” - 45/100 studies say men is empathic, 55/100 studies say women is empathic – so women are more empathic - Problems o Doesn’t take account of the effect size o Don’t know how much people are in each study o Treating each study equally o Unreliable!! Doesn’t differentiate studies 3. Meta-analysis - Normal distribution – has to be find standard deviation to make the scores standardized - Made a Z score, made an effect size - Effect size = takes into account of # of participants and the size of the difference - Saw effect size = d of 0.06 (very small! Virtually there is no difference) - No difference if d = 0.00-0.10 Lecture 5 2 October 25th, 2011 - Small difference if d = 0.11-0.35 - Moderate difference if d = 0.36-0.65 - Large difference if d = >0.66 - Very large difference if d = > 1.0 - Result an overall comparison of men and women - + = men scores are higher; - = women scores are higher - Strengths o Statistically reliable o Very easy to be interpretated - Problems o Biases o Don’t know which study to use in the meta-analysis o Should use random sampling/selection = every study should have equal chance to be in the analysis Helping Behaviours - Stereotypically female are more helpful - There are little differences of gender differences in helpfulness in general - Only 0.13 effect size (small difference) - Specific differences where men appear to be more helpful o Men are more likely to help if helping would be dangerous - Altruism = helping another person without expectation/reward and at some risk to yourself - Men are more stereotypically altruistic - Cases where women are as likely to help: o War time  Groups of people being hunted by the Nazis  Both men/women helped to hide these groups of people - Given the circumstances, things can change - Strongest predictor of whether people will help altruistically = what does the family do o Mothers help the neighbours more o Strong influence of p
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