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Lecture 5

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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

PSYC 3480 – PSYCOLOGY OF WOMEN LECTURE 5 OCTOBER 16 2012 GENDER COMPARISONS IN SOCIAL AND PERSONALITY CHARACTERISTICS  More similarities  Few significant differences o Even these differences are very small o Factors that can influence the size of gender differences (confounds)  Gender differences are largest when behavior is measured in terms of self-report  Ie. Questionnaires  Gender differences are largest when other people are present.  Gender differences are largest when gender is prominent and other shared roles are minimized.  Gender differences are largest when the behavior requires specific gender-related skills. TYPES OF RESEARCH  Longitudinal Studies o A study preformed over a period of time with the same subjects o It is strong because it you are using the same subjects o Weaknesses include sometimes subjects drop out (mortality), expensive, time consuming  Box-score or Counting o The number of studies in which one is higher than the other o Strength: Easy o Weakness: no systematic way of evaluating what the studies are ; doesn’t take into account how many participants are in each study  Meta-analysis o Takes into consideration the flaws of the other 2 methods o Looks at effect size (d) = significance of the difference / number of participants o Effect size gives you a comparison o Meta-analysis calculates the effect size of a lot of studies and comes up with an overall conclusion o Problem: what studies are chosen (ie. Bias if only chose studies where womens scores are higher) HELPING BEHAVIOURS  General helpfulness = helping someone overcome some difficulty o Stereotype : Females are more helpful than males  However there is only a 0.13 effect size in a meta analysis of 182 studies  Specific differences in general differences  Men more likely to help if helping would be dangerous (ie. Picking up a hitchhiker)  When specific skills/knowledge is needed (ie. Changing a tire)  Both men and women are equally likely to mail a stamped letter is it appeared to be lost  Altruism = helping someone without expecting reward, often when there is a possibility of harm to one’s self o Circumstances: Danger, Skills, Familiarity with person o Stereotype: Males are more altruistic than females, because most altruistic acts involve some danger  But: there are many cases where women are as likely to help  Wartime (Danger to shield or feed those hiding)  Nurturance = giving help to someone who needs it and cannot provide it for themselves o Stereotype: females are more nurturing than males o But there are often gender similarities  When response is clear – both women and men respond quickly to screams of a childs pain  when the situation is ambiguous - when a child whimpers  Women score higher than men on self report personality measures  Women are so often seen in nurturant roles such as child care, nurses, daycare workers, elementary teachers, secretary that it’s easy to accept the sterotype of women as more nurturing. HOWEVER participation is not enough. Participation by itself is not proof.  Participation rates may reflect o Social Pressures o Nature of choices available  The social situation may influence conclusions o Women more nurturing towards others’ infant in the company of others
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