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PSYC 3630 (13)
Erin Ross (13)
Lecture 11

Lecture 11 & 12 - Divorce, Neighbourhood/Community Influences on Children

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PSYC 3630
Erin Ross

Divorce Slide 11 - Moderator = reduces/enhances the relationship between 2 variables o Variables that fall between the mediator or stressor o Less than optimal stressors: either the moderator make it worse? Or make it better? o Ex: related to individual factors – education, employment in paid labour force, good network of social supports o Social supports come with strings attached: judgments, conditions (can be more stressful) o Supportive new partner = re-couple proves to be beneficial o No gender effects in post-divorce-stress-adjustment o Economic resources decline for divorced women o People who strongly believe marriage is for life, will experience more distress at divorce o The greater distress people experience during marriage, the more relief they have during divorce o Women more likely to get paid less and employed discriminated Mediators (stressors) - Meta-analysis of 92 studies: uses outcomes of individual studies as data o Analyse the outcomes of a whole set of studies o Do they show consistent data? o Broad outcomes = academic achievement, conduct (withdraw/acting out), psychological adjustments, self-concept, social competence o Size of the effects are generally small, largest effects for “conduct” o Decade of publication made a difference  Research done in 1960s and 1970s show bigger differences than in 80s  Narrowing of the gap in adjustment between kids and parents currently married have lots of to do with decline/stigma attached to divorce  1980s divorce is less undesirable than the divorce in 1960-70s  Parents are now more aware to help modify the negative consequences of divorce on children  Increase emphasis of continual participation with children  Post divorce custody: programs for children having trouble of separation  Mediation and education for parents of the effects of divorce - Existing gap in academic achievement, conduct, social consequences, NOW – long-term physical health consequences of divorce o Effects are not big, but do exist o Selection theory: parents’ personality are predisposed to divorce, also predispose them to poor parenting  Children post divorce adjustment don’t come because they’re experiencing from divorce, but they experience it from parenting during the marriage  Even if stats control parents’ characteristics, still see differences in children adjustment following divorce o Longitudinal research = Churnin – children currently divorced had more problems than children in not divorced families (substance abuse in teens, self-esteem, social competence) - Crisis-chronic stress model: negative effects will exist, but will decline over time following divorce o Kids show declining of problems over time after divorce o Risks factors: Poor subjective well-being, increased marital problems of your own, increased likelihood your marriage will end in divorce o Mechanisms that explain post-divorce problems: post-divorce economic hardship – decline in standard of living for mothers and children resident to that woman (less likely of secondary education) - Parents with conflicting relationship produces more negative outcomes for children, than children whose parents who are divorced who don’t show those qualities - Non-custodial fathers’ contact with their children increased, has an impact on children o Better academic achievement, less externalizing behaviour, less internalizing behaviour, o Parenting quality with child and non-custodial parent have shaping effects o Increased awareness of role of non-custodial parent - Income instability: unpredictability of child support payment o Related to school attainment, behaviour at school, physical health problems for kids - Number of life events that follow divorce have a role o Ex: moving, changing schools for children, losing friendship groups Moderators - Coping skills: problem solving, seeking social support than passive/avoidance better post-divorce adjustment - Child tend to fa
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