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Lecture 5

Week 5 - Piagetian Theory

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PSYC 4010
Scott Adler

Piagetian Theory - The specific stages and the timing is completely irrelevant today - If Piaget has been shown to be wrong, why do we continue to discuss his theory? o Historical relevance o Beginning of experimental research in developmental psychology o Some of the tests are still being tested today o General principles of how development works - Hull: descriptive research, went in to the classroom and asked questions to students Piaget’s basic principles: - Adaptation of organism to environment o Darwinism: recapitulation theory - evolution, natural selection, development of a child recapitulates or follow the same sequence or course as does evolution o Development of a child from conception follows the same course as does evolution from early species to later species - Adaptation of intelligence in construction of own structures o By structuring the environment they are in, that’s how the child’s intelligence will grow - Cognitive relations not based on a simple copy of external object o Ability to associate/relate information o Interaction of the individual and the external world o You make relations out of your prior experiences o Memory is not just a snapshot of your experience o Memory is constructive = we construct It Subject-External Interaction - Active infant o Not If they are not interested or habituated - Affordances o Some basic info they have in order to pick up regularities in their environment o Commonality of info across the modality (visual, auditory), this helps them to relate the info  Ex: ball bounces to floor, there’s sound when hits the floor - Habituation/novelty-preference Specifics - Knowledge is linked with actions (operations) o Because child is active in constructing their cognitive structures and knowledge base, therefore knowledge is linked with action o You do this to that thing o They are active and interacting with their environment o How they act with environment links to their knowledge/understanding o Later on, they internalize these actions (internal action/representation to do it = operation) o Infants do not distinguish between external world and self o A-not-B task  Hide item at A, find it at A. if you hide it at B, they look back at A  Their understanding of the external world (of where to find the object) is linked to their own objects to themselves  Their previous action to find the toy is to reach to A  When hid to B, they pull back the knowledge (finding the object must mean searching at A) - Construction o Coordination of actions o They start linking actions together o Ex: want to grab milk but cereal in the way – infants would just try to grab the milk without moving the cereal. Later on, child would move the cereal first in order to grab milk o Interactions between objects o Based on actions o Capacity to represent specific info cognitively does not occur until 2 years old o Ex: language is a representation of an image o Ex: memory is a representation – when you remember something it is not the actual event, it is a representation of the event you experienced o Trial and error – try actions out and see what happens  Becomes internalized – don’t have to actually do the action, can have a representation of it mentally - Coordinations o Of actions o Transformations of actions to operations (representation)  Operations are internalized actions  Conservation tasks  What is the relationship between action and object  They have to internalize those actions and effects, in order to think about these observation tasks  Centration – they don’t pick up other info, or interrelate of diff aspects of the same event, they focus on 1 thing (focusing on height with liquid,
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