Class Notes (811,170)
Canada (494,539)
York University (33,712)
Psychology (4,078)
PSYC 4010 (28)

Week 8 - The A-not-B Battleground

4 Pages
Unlock Document

York University
PSYC 4010
Scott Adler

Object Permanence - Children are unable to represent objects when they are not available - Understand that objects exist independent of our ability to perceive them - At 8-12 months, infants can search for hidden objects - Limitations in this ability: A-not-B Task 12-18 months - 8-12 months Child sees you hide the object, infant still makes the mistake - Trial-and-error experimentation of the world to find new and diff ways of acting on it - Before this age, infant produces known actions that will produce mostly known outcomes - Here the infant produces new actions and observes the effects - They are able to be more flexible in actions they produce in order to see what effects they have on their world (not limited actions) - Can do the A-not-B task but only when object is visibly displaced o Indicates that spatial relation of object relative to other objects is represented and is not related to their action o Start developing a representation of the world is distinct from themselves o The world is clearly linked to what they do and what they act in the world Factors - Revolve around issues of info-processing o Visual attention o Perception o Perceptual-action coupling Memory - Diamond (1985) - If no delay b/w hiding and allowing infant to search, then infants search correctly - If impose a delay, then get errors of searching at B - 2 sec at 7.5 months - Increasing by 2 sec each month - Working memory (a type of short term memory) allow us to temporarily store info that we need in order to complete some task - If you don’t use that piece of info , it will decay In the working memory - Lesions to adults’ prefrontal cortex, an area involved in working memory, results in poor performance on A not B task - Butterwroth (1977) - Used transparent occluders - Found infants still make errors - You can hide it at B, you put a clear plastic over the hole so you can still see the toy in hole - They still go back and search at A - Now they don’t rely on object, they can see it. So it is not just a memory issue! Attention - Maybe they just are not paying attention where it is hidden o Could affect the ability to remember - Younger children don’t attend as well, so they wont be able to remember it as well - Horobin & Acredolo (1986) o 3 conditions to test for how attention might relate to ability to search Horobin & Acredolo - 1) Close pair (15.25cm) - 2) Far pair (45.75cm) - 3) 6 hole (A and B 45.75cm apart, with 4 holes in between) - Hypothesized that at close pair: Infants wouldn’t be able to attend to 1 without getting interference by the other - Hypothesized that at far pairs: holes are distinct enough, infants can perceive them separately without getting interference - Hypothesized that at 6 holes: 2 holes that are active holes that are far apart which shouldn’t be interfered with each other; the neighbouring hole could interfere with it Results Condition Correction search at B 1-close pair 57% 2-far far 89% 3-6 hole 52% - Having a hole next to where the object is hidden, it interferes with their attention and whats info is processed and what gets linked to hidden position Close pair O O Far pair O O 6 hole OOOOOO Condition Attention back to A Attention to other 1-close pair 11% 79% 2-far pair 62% 98% 3-6 hole 17% 100% - At far pair: attending to A as well as B, they are able to dinstinct the differences b.w the 2 - At close pair: attending A but also attending to B, they are so close so they attend them TOGETHER so it
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 4010

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.