3. January 29 Lecture 4.doc

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York University
Public Policy and Administration Studies
PPAS 2110
Peter Constantinou

PPAS 2110 Lecture 4 January 29 2014 Federalism – exam question* - Affects the structure the function of all what government does all the time - Division of powers between central and regional governments such that neither is subordinate to the other (eg Ottawa is not in charge of other provinces and vice versa) - Neither national government acting alone nor the regional governments acting together have authority to alter the powers of other level of government - In contrast, municipal governments are subordinate to provincial - Federal government has a lot of money (therefore influential and authority) - Municipal governments have elected officials (mayors and counsels), but federal government still tells them what to do, however municipal governments can pass rules and laws that are subjected to the province and federal government cannot (eg: municipalities are creatures of provinces – decide what to do with the money for its province) - Most of the provincial government money come from taxes but municipal government comes from property tax (to pay for local items like roads) - ^ therefore, provincial government pays schools (depending on how much students a school has, provincial government will pay the school per student) Federal, Confederal and Quasi - Federalism, where there is coordination and independence in constitutional sphere – independence (eg: Argentina, Germany, Canada, Mexico, US) - Confederal, formal groupings independent stats agreed to have common institutions - Quasi, where one region has autonomy within a border (eg: Spain) Compromise - Reason for Canada joining federation was compromise - Cartier believed effective way to protect French-Canadian interests was through federal union - Way to reduce government instability and deadlock in legislature of united Canada – give some areas to one level and keep some areas for federal level Condeferal Settlement - BNA Act 1867 5 Principal components - 1. Division of power – have 16 enumerated powers in section 92, enumerated 29 federal powers, and concurrent powers, residual powers left to federal government in section 91 - 2. Division of financial resources – levy taxes by any mode or system (indirect or direct), provinces expected to raise revenue from licenses and rely on federal subsidies - 3. Federal controls – reservation, disallowance, place any local work or understanding - 4. Representation – agreement on provincial representation in House of Commons and Senate, all provinces would be represented according to population in commons, but regional equality would prevail in Sena
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