A prayer or a brief statement of Christian doctrinal belief dating from about the third century.
Ascribed to the apostles or first generation followers of Jesus. It is now often recited in unison by
congregation in services of worship.
Christ’s restoration of humanity to a right relationship with God, variously interpreted as divine
victory over demonic power, satisfaction of divine justice, or demonstration of a moral example.
According to Christians, the forgiving and pardoning of sin through the death of Jesus by his
crucifixion and his resurrection.
The suffering and crucifixion of Jesus on the cross. His crucifixion occurs on Good Friday, the
Friday of Holy week, the last week of lent. The remembering of the passion takes place from
noon until three in the afternoon on Good Friday, which is the same time of the crucifixion
according to the gospels (other than Mark). It symbolizes and honours Jesus’ sacrifice for
humanity and therefore represents the doctrine of Atonement; Jesus’ reconciliation of humanity’s
relationship with God through his death and humanity’s salvation from their sins.
Ritual actions performed by Christians as an oath of alliance to their religion. In the thirteenth
century a list of seven sacraments emerged that has remained standard for the Catholic tradition:
baptism, confirmation, the Eucharist, penance, anointing the seriously sick, ordination, and
marriage. According to Christians, it is an “outward and visible sign of an inward spiritual
The idea of God having three forms, as father, son and the Holy Spirit. The father being God in
the heaven, the son being Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit being a form of God that descended
upon Earth symbolized by a dove. The Holy Spirit is said to be what informed/impregnated
virgin Mary with the child. JUDAISM
In 586 BCE, the Babylonians invaded the Kingdom of Judah (the “southern kingdom”) centered
on Jerusalem and exiled its inhabitants. This was a traumatic event in Jewish history, as they
destroyed the political independence of the kingdom, along with its monarchy and the First
Temple of Jerusalem. The Babylonian exile lasted for about 50 years (586 – 539 BCE). They
were hoping that God would send down a Messiah to help them. Cyrus the Great conquered the
Babylonian kingdom and allowed all the Jews to come back and another temple was built. King
Cyrus was considered as the Messiah by many. The emerging of Synagogues can be traced back
to the exile because after the temple was rebuilt, congregational life gained in emphasis over
temple worship, therefore the synagogue was born.
Purity rituals that the Jews follow. This includes not eating pigs, birds and blood, as well as
mammals that break these rules themselves. The slaughter of all kosher animals be done in a
humane way (ritually acceptable). Furthermore, there are special rules that pertain to the
Passover holiday, such as not eating any bread with leavening in it at that time.
Also known as the five books of Moses. These five books are Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus,
Numbers and Deuteronomy. According to tradition Moses authored all five books. These books
form the rules though which Jews are supposed to live by.
Tanakh: It is the Jewish Bible that consists of three sections. 1. The Law (Torah). 2. The
Prophets 3. The Writings. Known as the sacred book of Judaism. The Torah consists of all the
religious books and the Bible commentaries. The Prophets include the history of Israel and
warnings made by prophets. The Writings consist mostly of historical and poetical books. The
Hebrew acronym (T N K) ISLAM
It is a text containing traditional reports of Mohammed’s words and example, taken by Muslims
as a foundation for conduct and doctrine. Hadif is an individual unit of literature and is
considered as a corpus. It was not codified until the 10th century after Muhammad’s death for
the Sunni community and 11th for the Shia’. It is the most important of the three elements of
sunna because it most directly expresses the prophets opinions or judgements regarding the
communities practice. The Prophets saying and his example must also go back to an eyewitness
or it is not valid. It is equivalent to the Oral Torah in Judaism.
The fifth pillar of Islam and is the largest annual pilgrimage in the World that takes place in
Mecca. It must be carried out by every able bodied Muslim once in a lifetime. It is considered as
a form of resurrection or rebirth as you return free from all sins. The first pilgrimage was
performed by Abraham and Ishmael. Before Muhammad’s death, he went on a pilgrimage and
today people use that as an example of how to perform the rituals. These rituals include, walking
around the Kabah counter clockwise seven times, kissing the black stone, running back and forth
between two hills, Al-Safa and Al-Marwa, drinking from the Zamzam well, then go to mount
Arafat to stand in vigil and throw stones at a ritual called stoning the devil. The pilgrims then
shave their heads and perform animal sacrifice and celebrate in a 3 day festival called Eid-al
Adha. Hajj is considered as a way to bring Muslims together and show their devotion to God.
Prophet Muhammad’s migration from Mecca to Madinah to establish a community. The
Prophets life was under threat in Mecca, therefore he went to Madina to seek refuge which
became know as the city of the Prophet. Muslims use the Hijrah as the beginning of their
calendar. Events are dated before or after the Hijrah. In Madina, the Prophet established the first
ever Muslim community using the Quaran as source of law thus creating life under Islam and
It is a chain of transmission for the hadith that begins with the compiler and goes back to Prophet
Mohammed himself. A hadith that has three or more complete chains of transmission and whose
authorities are well known and trust worthy people are considered to be sound hadith. If one or
more is missin