1) Thomas Hobbes
- self-interest and egoism
- human nature (selfish)
2) Immiseraion x wealth
- they are exploited working class - capital accumulation
- miserable conditions - wealthy getting wealthier
- (alienating) conditions at work place
3) Dominant Ideology
Define: An ideology is revealed to our understandings through a screen of
assumptions, beliefs, explanations, values, and unexamined knowledge (61).
Dominant ideology provides references, the rules of thumb, the directives to the
eyes and cars of its members. It is the glue that holds institutions together, the
medium that allows members of the population to interact, predict events,
understand their roles, perform adequately, and strive to achieve the kinds of goals
most appropriate to the maintenance of any particular social organization (62).
Significance: A dominant ideology that is useful, even socially necessary, does not
make it true. There are some members of the population who are dissatisfied with
these responses and who seek explanations that better satisfy their sense of truth
(62). If one is aware, one can build some resistance towards it. This can make other
ideologies less important.
- hegemonic view
- view point/ thought frame
- of powerful class/ strata
- legitimizing the status-quo
Individual ideas, perceptions, values,
Influence of parents, schools, and media. Shapes individuals wishes for future.
Majority and in power=Dominant. Why is it dominant?
STATE: Ideology and DOMAINT ideology .
Significance: if one is aware, one can build some resistance towards it. Makes other
ideology less important. Make sure that that in power makes sure that others
opinion is not taken into consideration.
4) Aggragate demand
- Keynesian regime
- Goal was to increase it - Encouraging consumption
- Through full employment, high & stable wages
5) Holmberg’s Mistake
Define: Holmberg's Mistake is the recent realization that many of our assumptions
about Native American life may be incorrect because most of our observations of
their cultures were made while these peoples were under great pressure.
Significance: When readings or examining historical content, it is important to look
for evidence that may navigate your findings. Try to understand, rather than
imposing. It’s all our perspective e understands within their context. It is important
to look at all sides of a story.
Define: Westray was a coal mine in Nova Scotia, Canada that was the site of a
methane explosion. Westray operated for less than a year between September 3rd
1991 until May 9th 1992, when the explosion happened, which resulted in the death
of 26 miners (11 of the 26 bodies were not found till this day) and shut down the
facility for good. Westray was a mine known to be rich in coal, and also a mine with
a rich history in accidents and death (194). The company in charge of the Westray
development promised employees work for at least 15 years with no layoff and
Significance: Westray was abuse of the corporate form. The large business was
shielded from the public gaze because of political connections. Westray can be
described as a predictable path to disaster. Many of the persons, entities, and
management of Westray failed in the primary responsibilities regarding safety and
sanitation. Many would question why the workers didn’t just leave, the answer to
this is the promise of at least 15 years of work with better pay. At this time there
were very little jobs int he mining industry or in any industry.
- protestant work ethic -> capitalism
- weber foundation (providing ideological framework)
- working hard save accumulate and invest more work business
9) creative distruction
- josep destruction
- conservatism liberism socialism chart
10) Reform (Contemporary) Liberalism
Define: Society went a transformation during the 1970’s and new ideas started to be
developed (liberalism). Liberalism is the belief in the importance of individual
liberty and equal rights. The contemporary liberal (reformed liberal) goes from equality of right to equality of opportunity; there is more of a focus on equity than
quality. They have strong beliefs that you receive achievement through education.
Freedom is a positive quality ad freedom to develop ones whole potential and access
means to help it (66).
Significance: The free market is key to social development .The role of the
government is to regulate the market-place and ensure that the rules are fair and
equitable: government is not itself an economic actor in a truly “free” enterprise
system. Class has little importance, so the government cannot be seen as the agent
of any particular class.
11) Moral economy
Opposite: Market economy, Capitalism.
MARKET: Profit, Greed, Demand and supply .
MORAL: Justice, fair =makes sure that everyone has something. Generosity. Makes
sure everyone is taken care of.
Significance: unlike market economy, where only the fittest survive. Notion of public
good. What kind of society we have.
Define: A moral Economy can be defined as an economy that is based on fairness,
goodness and justice. it is based on cultural beliefs combined with economic
activates. The moral economy runs on a system where it makes sure everyone has
something, it makes sure everyone is taken care of. It works best in.
Significance: E.P. Thompson talks about the moral economy in his article “The Moral
Economy of the English Crowd in the Eighteenth Century”. He emphasizes that we
thrive on a market economy instead of a moral economy, where in a market
economy everything is done to better ones own situation.
- food riots
12) Marilyn Warning
Define: Is a feminist, politician and activist of women’s rights, she was the youngest
female politician of New Zealand. Warning in recent years has devoted her time to
making women’s work paid and unpaid as international human rights.
Significance: The GDP only includes paid work, so women’s unpaid work was not
included, which means they are included in social benefits, EI, pensions and etc. GDP
is an indicator used to compare wealth of nations, but it doesn’t measure the quality
of life (i.e. education, air quality, healthcare etc.). There is a division of poverty. The
women whose unpaid work is not documented, means that they are irrelevant
because they do not contribute to the nations GDP. 13) Honour
Define: We can differentiate between honour in traditional societies and honour in
modern societies. In traditional societies honour can define between male and
female. In modern society honour is based on ethics and also has a bit to do with