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SOSC Lecture #1.docx

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Social Science
SOSC 1000
Terry Conlin

SOSC Lecture #1 Jan 16 2014 The making of modern motherhood: Ideologies and practices of ‘good’ motherhood from the 1800s to the present 1) Mothering vs. Motherhood 2) The invention of Motherhood: From agriculture to Urbanization 3) WW2 and Beyond: The Privatization of Motherhood as Full-Time Mothering 4) 1990s and Beyond: Intensive Mothering: Emerging from Neo-Liberalism and as a Backlash to Feminism • Mothering is culturally produced. • Mothers are made to be this way, socialized to be this way • Rich distinguish the difference between mothering and motherhood • Rich: Motherhood demands mothers to live their life, not be limited to children only. • But they also say there are other ways to mother • Motherhood tells mothers how to mother and mothering is raising children • Feminists critique motherhood, not mothering or mothers • How is the institution of motherhood created? • It has changed throughout history. Motherhood today and in the past and future are different • What causes the change? • Motherhood changes as a result of significant social, economic, culture change upheaval • 4 times in history motherhood has changed • transaction (5000 B.C) when society went from hunting and gathering to agriculture • First time, from agriculture society to Industrial revolution. 18 Century • Second time, World War 2. Economy of war to economy of peace • Third time, 1990s. Change in economics, rise of neo-Liberalism. Not that obvious of a change but still significant • Fourth time, crash of 2008. Economic change, economic upheaval • Good mother in 1700s, agriculture time. • What would her time be spent doing? • She had far more important things to do than raise children • Her day would be busy doing economic labour. Productive labour in her home. • Have between 8-14 children • Whos minding the children? • Well children would be doing work too, age relevant but would still be working • Children would be little workers on the farms. • Children were an economic asset, today children are an economic liability • The parents would love their children but their expectations would be different • Children were seen as evil beings who were made to be good. • Children were seen as little adults • Back to who was watching the children.... • Babies would be hanging from trees, coming from the lullaby, “.... baby on the tree top...” • Today if a baby was tied on a tree people would call the police, but back then it was seen as good mothering • Safety on the farm, stop the children from hurting themselves. • Second method would be wet nursing. Where a mother OTHER than the biological mother would breast feed the baby • The biological mother couldn’t breast feed cause she was busy running the farm so it was someone else. • Usually a woman whose job it was to breast feed a baby. The village breast feeders • The feeders would be poor women, not in the best conditions. So the feeder wouldn’t have much to each themselves. • Some babies would die from illness, but the biological mother had no choice. • Industrial revolution mothers • Middle class families. • Men would go to cities to work. • But why didn’t the female go to the male and work? • She couldn’t. It was the Law. Women couldn’t have a post secondary education. And women could not have a job. • Women were not seen as equal to work and the law made it so th • Now Motherhood was the job. It was invented in the 19 century • Now mothers were suppose to take care of children since motherhood told them to • These women would not be taking the “hard” work of mothering. Servants would do that, even for middle class because servants were cheap. • A nurse maid wou
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