Toronto Star article: very specific stereotypical view of offenders (black, cornrows, etc.). Race is
not explicitly mentioned. This is an example of symbolic racism.
Why particular racialized groups are appearing in criminal justice statistics is because they are
committing more crime.
1. Aboriginal People. Residential School System. They were not allowed to practice
aboriginal customs, and were taught blacksmithing for boys, sewing and cooking for
girls, etc. The presence of psychological and sexual abuse. The Indian Act and the
reserve system that was established in 1876. Through this legislation, Aboriginals were
declared wards of the state and they were moved onto reserves. They faced lack of
running water, poor sanitation, poor housing, etc.
2. One of the key effects of colonialism and slavery are mentioned above. In the US, there
are high rates of unemployment, low opportunities, poor housing, etc.
3. High rates of suicide, alcohol, drug abuse, domestic violence, physical abuse, sexual
abuse, and a much greater reliance of the state and police to intervene in these situation
of conflict when before it was a community response.
RACE & CRIME II
It is those practices that are producing these high arrest rates.
The carding system: police approach people and question them. People are cared to say no
due to repercussions.
Racial Profiling is a systemic practice.
1. It is difficult to produce systematic research on racism. This is because it is invisible,
subtle, and the way it is manifested through symbolic & systemic racism.
a) There is an overwhelming amount of research in these two aspects. In 1995, there
was an Ontario commission on systemic racism. They concluded that racism exists
both in public and the criminal justice system. Anecdotal evidence includes black
males making statements about police who engage in racial profiling.
b) Starlight Tours. They would take Aboriginal people to the city of Saskatoon and leave
them there and there we