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Social Science
SOSC 1000

Social Science September 2013 Readings: Sagoff:  Not all of us think as ourselves as consumers however, many regard ourselves as citizens. We act like citizens to achieve what’s right and best for the community, but we act like consumers when we want something for ourselves.  We ask ourselves “are my preferences as a consumer consistent with my judgment as a citizen?”  The distinction between consumers and citizen preferences has long vexed the theory of public finance. Should public economy serve the same goals as household economy?  Consumer VS Citizen Interests: talks about contrast. Ex. I speed on the highway, yet I want police to enforce laws against speeding (being a hypocrite) Shusky:  SOSC ties in with humanities and physical science.  Economics was born from the speculation of political economics who wondered which forms of production and distribution were the right ones.  Philosophers turned to study the perception, they founded the field of psychology. It took years to distinct psychology because it rejected value judgments and consideration of what was good and bad (some even reject all ties to humanities).  Anthropology was born out of the debate over slavery.  Generalization: original hypothesis to fit the facts as known after the experiment. Since one starts with a number of facts and works towards a generalization, the method is an inductive one.  Chapter 1: describes the basic concepts of the different social sciences and indicates the kinds of hypothesis that are likely to be founded by anthropologists, economics, political scientists, psychologists, and sociologists. Ethics and Objectivity in SOSC  Direct analysis- one must be amoral objective, careful recorded, describing the subjects in as much detail as possible. Once in a while separates SOCS from other researchers in their attention to details that others might ignore.  Sociologists and social psychologists also rely on socio-grams, charts based on the results of interviews in which people are asked whom they like most in the group or whom they dislike most.  What the socio-grams reveal most clearly is that human relations do not always match the organizations of an activity. Management is the case, tried to organize workers according to the job performed. The Economic Perspective: Unity  Concept in economics is unity. Means something more than “useful”  Items that have unity have economic scarceness; they are in short supply. Diminishing Returns  Much economic analysis is based on its diminishing returns. This law states that the value of any good or service will decline after some point of abundance.  Led economists to expand on the concept of unity through behavior. The idea of utility is based on the premise that people are always striving to acquire goods and services that are useful and are limited in supply. Because of diminishing returns, people will strive to reach some balance in goods they acquire.  Expanding on the idea of utility, economics devised the concept of marginal utility in order to refute Karl Marx.  Marx had argued that the values of goods and services was determined by the amount of labor required to produce them.  According to them, consumers allocate money so that the last dollar spent on the kind of good gives the same degree of satisfaction as the last dollar spent on something else. The marginal utility of a product, thus is the utility of the last unit purchased.  Psychologist perceive behavior on the basis of personality the regular or recurrent set of actions reflecting the general behavior of a person.  The first experiment in conditioning also known as classic conditioning was reported by Ivan Pavlov in 1923.  Skinner expanded the theory with his concept in 1930s called operant conditioning.  Adjustment process= realization, projection, and identification.  Rationalization= “sour grapes”= that is the realization served to satisfy people by providing a reason for failure to obtain something they deserve.  Statues should not be confused with prestige. Statues is a complex set of norms directing behaviors and beliefs within society. A View From Above Holmberg: “the most culturally backward peoples of the world. Living in constant want and hunger, they had no clothes, no animals, no musical instruments, no art or design, and almost no religion. They couldn’t count beyond 3 or make fire” (the Sirino).  Believed that both the people and the land had no real history.  Because of small pox and influenza it left many of these people dead. 150 remained, however 95% died. Because of this the Sirino were left with no other choice but to reproduce with relatives. This left their children with club feet or unusual nicks in their ear lobes.  4 decades later: isolated hillocks of forest, canals, raised agricultural fields, and odd zigzagging ridges.  Joseph Conrad says that violence was of culinary origin. “Mighty Redman was a mighty hunter”.  Holmberg’s mistake- the supposition that native people lived in an eternal unhistorical state- held sway in scholarly work, and then fanned out to texts, campaigns, books, and t-shirts. Colonists view Indians as vicious barbarians, its mirror image was the dreamy stereotype of the Indian as a noble savage. Positive or negative, in both images Indians lacked social science, scientists like to call AGENCY.  Though Indians here are playing a heroic role, the advertisements still embodies Holmberg’s mistake, for it depicted Indians as people who never changed their environment from its original wild state. Because history is changing, they were people without history. Sept 18 2013 1. Hobbes- believed we would fight to gain what we need. 2. John Locke- tried to write a book on slaves and men and how it’s okay to have slaves and how men are superior. Declared that land could be private, which caused a lot of problems,Aristocrats always had control over the people but because the “common” land was now private, the richer people removed the peasants and their animals off the land with nothing but their labor to sell (land, labor and capital change= where capitalism started). 3. Jean Jacques- wanted to create a good society 4. Adam Smith- writes about the division of labor. He discovered manufacturing in mass. One person rolls metal- passes to the next person, then to the next etc. 5. Thomas Malthus- agriculture doesn’t outweigh population. The population out weights the agriculture. 6. Karl Marx- points out problem of the capitalist markets. Several contradictions that make you ask yourself how many TV’s can we produce, and how many of __x__ can we make for each family (alienation). Pollution of air and water that is being used and reused. 7. Max Veber- protestant church says don’t worry about being rich just keep investing in the business. So Veber argues that it’s the way they worked that contributes to the protestant boom. 8. Durkheim- argues that we would be confused and because of this there would be a lot of suicide. British start colonialism. They took resources and sold the finished goods back. VIDEO: WORLD POPULATION (BC-PRESENT)  Humans thrive on the capacity for existence. It is predicted that is 2030 only 4% will grow crops (which is not enough for the 96% that don’t grow crops).  1800- industrial age  If the present growth rate continues, population will be double by 2030.  1600- colonialAmericans  1500- New World  In 1830 the planet population is estimated at 1 billion during the agricultural revolution. It took 100 years (1930) to reach 2 billion. In 1975 the population reached between 2 to 4 billion. In 2000 population reached 6 billion, currently now at 7.1 billion.  World is shrinking due to the population  Vital Institutions: ECONOMICS,ANTHROPOLOGHY, PSYCHOLOGY, SOCIAL SCIENCE, POLITICALSCIENCE. 1. ECO (self). 2. ANTH (culture). 3. PSYCH (self). 4. SOCS (society). 5. POLS (society). The “BIG 5” science has grown apart. Ways of seeing 1960- Daniel Bell  60s leading archeologist.Argues that we come to understand key concepts such as modern and developed.  The coal world- people is communist worlds there is a lot of competition (who will join what). Behaviorist Revolution  Cold War= less attention to political theory and more to political science. The more you look like the US the more modern you are.  There is no more cold war, it is coming to an end. The belief that this is the end and that there is no more evolution in 1990. The Common Sense Revolution  Neo- conservative and neo- ideology.  2013- debates about same sex marriage, abortion, legalization of weed, financial crisis, prostitution, capital punishment, stem cell research, sexual harassment, slut walk (all over the world), rape, and controversy.  Political science= direct democracy  Sophists= always trying to make the weaker the better. Defending the people and the democracy.  Aristotle develops the first political typology ONE FEW MANY GOOD MONARCHY OLIGARNY POLITY BAD ?? ?? DEMOCRACY CANADA US UK LEGISLATIVE PARLAMENT CONGRES PARLAMENT LOWER HOUSE HOUSE OF HOUSE OF HOUSE OF COMMONS REPRESENTATIVES COMMONS UPPER HOUSE SENATE SENATE HOUSE OF LAURENCE FEDERAL UNITARY PARLEMENT CANADA UK PRESEDENTIAL USA FRANCE September 25h Ideology= is a fairly coherent and comprehensive set of ideas that explains and evaluates social conditions, help people understand their place in society, and provides a program for social and political action. Purpose: justifies the exercise of power. It explains and passes judgment on historical events, distinguishing between political right and wrong. Serves as a guide to action and behavior and legitimizes what we’ve done. Makes sense of a world, through which to simplify complex info. Provides its way of seeing the way of the world and a confusing environment, maps out policies. Dehumanization= Hilton and column. Marshak- Just because you have ideology doesn’t mean someone doesn’t have a similar ideology that competes with yours. Once an idea becomes dominant it becomes prominent.  Oligarchy= bad (opec- oil producers)  Aristocracy= good. Question Conservation Liberalism Socialism Guide to Behavior Tradition, divinitReason, self interest Reason morality Human Nature Flawed, Unequal by Individual Community Class birth Unites ofAnalysis Clan, family, natioArtificial, atomisticNatural, organic free choice, limited purpose Origin of Society Natural, Organic Artificial,Atomistic Natural, organic Units of Change Bad, Gradual Natural, Inevitable Desirable Requires action Role of Government Paternalism Promote equality of Promotes Equality rights conditions Highest Value Security Liberty Equality FILM: RASKY FILM  500 year anniversary of Columbus. The war against the Indians (1992).  1 ancestors were some supernatural creature was believed.  The bird saw a clam on the beach and saw a bunch of creatures inside, so the creatures came out of the clams and lived on the land.  Some legends say that the “red people” were in charge of the land.  “yellow people” in charge of the sea  “black people” in charge of the air  “White people” in charge of the fire.  1492 Columbus shows up in the Caribbean’s and it was not a friendly encounter. Thompson Highway “someone who got lost on the shores”  He treated the Indian’s like aliens- he was a monster, a lie, a murder and a crook.  Inuit people- carved in stone. • Were strong and survived really bad conditions.  Navaho- North East corner ofArizona • Through religion, society are able to understand things of nature. • Mayans and Inca’s and many other tribes populated most of the lands that we know to be NorthAmerica. • Cherokee took up most of the south US To kill people was hard for Indians to understand because they believed that everyone was put here for a reason. They believe that souls, rocks, and also animals have spirits. Columbus said that Indians had no religion and that they could use them to do whatever he wanted whenever he wanted. Columbus killed 6 million aboriginal people by chopping there arms off and killing them. He also hung them in numbers of 13. 1 representing Jesus and the other 12 representing the 12 disciples of Jesus Christ. After 50 years almost the whole race was gone.  Cartier- describes the people as reacting badly.  Aboriginal- they treated everyone well and gave them everything but in the long run the Spanish people still believed that the Indians we supposed to be treated badly.  Europeans brought over the plague (1634). Tribes sided with the French however, it was getting intense. The Indians didn’t want to fight but they had no choice (the Iroquois hated the French after this and turned to the white people).  In 1649 Iroquois went to destroy the fortress that the Jesuits had made for Jesus (tortures the priests- father Bre Beuf suffered the most. He went to the fortress to die with Jesus but the Iroquois killed him and ate his heart).  Iroquois rebelled. October 2 2013 The Left Right Ideological Spectrum 1. Revolutionaries- sit on Left 2. NationalAssembly- sit on Right 3. NOW deals with the legitimate role of gov’t 4. In the middle are the 50-50 people. (Ideological center). • People in this spectrum either move or transfer. Classical Liberal  Hobbes is the first modern thinker  1776+ 1688 = dates for the US  17th- French revolution  19 century is the classical liberal revolution  Socialists- out of industrial revolution. The Liberal Debate Personal freedom- freedom of government. To chooses their own rules of economy (classical liberal). Limited government- government should be restricted to 3 activities. 1) Provide with army or force. 2) Police force (protect internal).And 3) Provide with system of law. Equality of rights- same set of rules for all citizens. Power, wealth, have always existed- but for law to provide equality. (Procedural fairness). Consent of the government- government is accountable to the citizens. Have a very narrow opinion of citizens/ stakeholders (property holders). Reform Liberal Personal freedom is positive. The access to necessary needs. It is okay to force the power of the law to tax wealthy people. (Everyone should pay the same amount). October 8 2013 The Great Transformation (Bell) Talks about creation of common culture, a shrinking world, transformation from modernity. Karl Polanyi- The Great Transformation in 1944  Modernity arrives with the self-regulating free marketing economy, land, labor, and capital become commodity.  Shills and Bell represent the mainstream of optimistic traditional society.  Thompson- rural people will become urban people and work in the dark mills of economy. Liberals see peasants as the nothing in modernity. The people who defended the peasants were the aristocracy.  Thompson documents the change of the moral economy of the crowd to the merging market economy. Child labor talks on a different meaning. It was child labor that was embedded in the moral economy. Children’s labor had become a commodity and embedded in the labor economy. Traditional Modern Classical Conservative = Classical Liberal Monarchy = Parliament Aristocracy = Bourgeoisie Church of English = Dissenters Agriculture = Commerce Mercantilism = Capitalism Moral Economy = Market Economy Poor laws/ Corn Laws = Laissez – Faire Embedded Economy = Disembedded economy Max Weber: The protestant Ethic and the spirit of capitalism (1905). FILM: THE DAY UNIVERSE CHANGED 1. Who were the good and bad guys?  Everything we do is mass produced (everything we buy).  Sugar cane and slavery: everyone wanted sugar so they boughtAfrican slaves to pick the sugar canes. They brutally beat the labourers for doing something wrong.  Livestock was the problem in the winter. So they used to turn up the land by planting crops that would grow in every season.  As population went up, so did prices. Cash flow problem= there was too much money and not enough people to circulate it. th  1740 English- import and export trade. No tax on anything but in the 18 century things changed.  John Locke- government could hang you but couldn’t take your right to pass your property on. However the priests couldn’t do anything because they were looked at as revolutionary fanatics. The only thing they could do was have kids, but they weren’t allowed to vote, buy property or anything else.  Education system: children learnt what the world was about (math, science, etc).  England was built on coal so the fuel problem was settled, but now businesses up in the hills were suffering FACTORY & MARKET PLACE REVOLUTION PART 2: FILM  Water power problem: let the damage get at the supply  Decenter energies: created bridges on which one could take 80 tons  Thanks to cannels things were being delivered at speed rates. Cannels were being made due to agricultural profit that had been gained earlier. Lack of profit was solved by turning to Scotch whisky.  Scotch men= cost a lot more to burn the fuel and condense that vapor into magic liquor (latent heat= a process in vaporizing liquid).  Steam engine for the first time ever was created in 1800. Did the work of 800 men. 50,000 speed needles were created in a span of 24 hour. This machine ran night and day.  Wedgewood pottery was called queen’s wear because they were the same brand of plate the queen ate off of.  Earlier in the film there impact on industrial revolution and linear versus the cyclical time.  Railways were used to carry in supplies. Ready to bring in frate and nothing else. They then began bringing in fresh fruit into the country. Then people started marrying from out of the country, because along with the railway came postal service. It became a nationwide conveyer belt.  1720s and the industrial revolution was the beginning of increasing population and the desire for more, better, bigger and cheaper things. th October 16 2013 Smith and Keynes 1. An insatiable, dynamic, disembedded, two- edged sword. 2. Adam Smith, mercantilism and the wealth of notions. 3. The society of perfect (economic) Liberty and the disembedded, self-correcting free market economy. 4. The Keynesian challenge to orthodoxy 5. The Keynesian welfare state. 6. The attack on Keynesian left and right 7. Marilyn Waring versus economic orthodoxy Capitalism is closely aligned with classical liberty ideology Humans and people always want more. This is the core of human nature. (Argumentative appetence). Possessive individualism- we own ourselves. We can own or sell ourselves as we are our own property. Capitalism Characteristics 1. Argumentative appetence 2. Dynamics- constant change 3. Creative destruction 4. Disembedded- “there is no economics in traditional society” 5. Embedded in society- then disembedded from society. The 2 edged sword Because capitalism produced growth and misery and wealth and misery. This is the reason why they call it the 2 edges sword Heilbroner Argues  Feudalism= traditional  EconomicActivity= • Is hostility. • Dept. is a sin and moral weakness. • Natural and unnatural. • Economic activity was embedded in society. • Merchants were to serve royal and priests  Mercantilisms= • 1776Adam Smith writes “The wealth of Nations” • Transition from old to new • About the alliance between economic and political elite. • Mercantilism company most well-known is the HUDSON BAY COMPANY. • Mercantile relations were meant to enrich. Adam Smith Book 1- the recipe to create the society of perfect liberal economy. Book 2- consequence for following book number 1. One of the sources for the great thinker of Karl Marx. In this book Smith begins by demonstrating how the division of labor unlocks the productivity of labor. Second book- unlocks the consequence to this production process. Market Economy= government should create the economic framework to intervene and check monopoly. IFAND ONLY IF a) Incomes- must be equal b) Labor- must have the freedom to work or not (must be free) c) Investment- belief that investment markets are self-regulated d) Competition- there must be a significant level of competition for there to be a 3 market economy to operate. Business Cycle Inflation too much $ Supply Boom 1929 too much Aggregation Demand too Supply& little Demand Stagnation Demand Bust (unemployment) Bretton Woods GDP= C+I+G+ (X-M)=AD I= problem Government began to spend on things the citizens began to see as an entitlement instead of a privilege. Smith = Keynes Supply = Demand Inflation= Unemployment Economic Whip= Safety net Bay St. = Main St. Neg. Liberalism= Pos. Liberalism Night watchman State = Welfare State October 23 2013 The Attack on Keynesianism: (Right and Left) IDEOLOGICAL RIGHT  Countries in the western world will experience inflation, stagnation, and unemployment. As inflation become worse more people begin to challenge the economic orthodox.  Big government- Keynesianism ideology- spend, spend, spend • Governments begin to regulate everything • Expansion- government- much too big • Impaired the market economy (supply and demand) • Big government = high tax rates (why create wealth if it’s only going to be taxed?) • Corporate taxes. Because of this capital doesn’t want to invest because taxes are too high. • Keynesian era stripped laborers from their right to work. Collect unemployment insurance. The era of big labor- state legislate compulsory collective bargaining. Not only is bargaining compulsory, if you fail to do so, there will be consequences. The era of the male bread winner family (industrialized employment= blue collar workers). • By the 1970s organized labor is much too powerful, therefore extorting big government and labor messing with the economy.  The problem with Keynesianism is that they rob the rich of the opportunity to produce wealth and making the poor lazy. Make it less progressive and focus on deficit reduction. STOP SPENDING! (Work for your money).  Introduce an era of DEREGULATION. This is time for privatization. Corporation should be privatized and get government out of the world of business. Get ourselves away from Keynesianism and return to the economic whip. IDEOLOGICAL LEFT  The old orthodox Marxist view of the state and the bourgeoisie. The government is a tool of a particular class in society. The theory also believes that class struggle will rise up and overthrow capitalism.  Neo-Marxism old view was that the old government was a tool of the old class, the new view is that the state isn’t a view but that capitalists are much more fragmented then Marxists believe. Different class interests in the bourgeoisie.  It was Keynesianism and nothing but Keynesianism that saved itself The 3 function of the state 1. Accumulation: the responsibility of government in a capitalist society to create an environment in which a surplus value can be created. 2. Legitimation function: the role of the state (neo Marxism) to reconcile those that loose under capitalism to the very system that defeats them (the winner and the losers) • To prevent a socialist revolution • Ex. Old age pensions, they will remain loyal to capitalism • Ex. Old age security- healthy resistance from the business 3. Coercion: if legitimation breaks down then state has legal coercion over authority to control the function (governments legislating public and private) • To maintain the status quo. • End the strike between the state and workers • Contradiction between legitimation and accumulation. • Neo-Marxist: steal from the poor and give to the rich. Marilyn Warring VS. Economic Orthodoxy:  United Nations system of national accounts: this way of measuring wealth leaves out 50% of the population of the planet (unpaid work- overwhelmingly done by women).  GDP= Gross Directive Product  She is responsible for the measure through unpaid work through stats Canada. Over the past few decades we have become more aware of the unpaid work by women. (Time use surveys instead of long for census).  GDP up= Canada’s wellbeing down FILM: Who’s counting: Sex, Lies and Global Economics? (On Marilyn’s book: If Women Counted)  Feminist economist.  National income accounting doesn’t have a debt side.As long as activity passes through the economy, it is good for the growth of the economy.  Oil leaks- contributes to the influx to the subscriptions of every green organization you can think of. Adds to growth through media, news, paper, income. Because of this economy grows.  The word economics means the care and management of a household. Notions of value, defined by being strong or worthy- has nothing to do with capital or material gain.  GDP is unrelated to the community (tells us nothing about poverty, education or economic crisis)  She would go into these little towns and do fieldwork. She would examine how woman would do unpaid work. What they were doing at each point of the day? And how time used best describes women’s lives. Men’s days are much shorter than men’s. Men’s days had more leaguer. Woman spend 5 hours of the day JUST cooking. They didn’t have as much leaguer time as men. Priority lies in cutting down the woman’s perpetration time. Even in North American society, (housewives) woman are still contributing to unpaid work. Women tend to their homes, children, gardens, husbands, food, household cleaning etc... However she is considered economically inactive and unemployed. Men however are looked at skilled and effective because they go to work.  Women don’t have Canada pension plan because they are “inactive” in the economy therefore when their husbands died most of them were led into poverty.  Government was re-elected with the majority of 1.  She found a paragraph in a book that she read that said the work of housewives, who do work that is unpaid, is of little or know importance. There is a creditable amount of work that women do that doesn’t get accounted for.  United Nations system of national accounts= controls our life. • (Highly selective form of control) this system recognizes nothing other then money. There is no value to please, no value to the preservation of natural resources, no value to unpaid work for example house wives, doesn’t respond to values that are refused to recognize, leaves out half the pop of the planet, cause of poverty and death, encourages environmental disaster, the economic system that can eventually kill us all.  Killing, homelessness, devastation of people is caused by weapon systems and is valued at every economic system  If the country’s economic system is based around war, then they will always have in their best interests to sustain a market based up war and fire arms.  Every minute the world’s budget exceeds 1.3 million. The US spends 2 billion dollars on war a year. War contributes to growth and development.  If Woman Counted the average poor Pilipino woman has up to 8 woman and has to support all of them. To change the conditions of life for these people will depend on the economic system.  Over 1 billion people on the planet are malnourished. 17 million people die a year because of poverty and hunger.  Economics is a tool of people in power. Operates in terms of language, if you don’t understand the type of intellectual language, you were looked upon as not being intelligent. th November 6 2013 Canadian Index of Well Being- based mainly of Marilyn Warring’s work. Work, Class (and Alienation) What is work - Reinhart readings (four examples) 1. Bertrard Russle - 2 kinds of work:  Altering the position of matter (moving things around). Unpleasant, ill-paid, and dangerous  Telling others to do stuff. Pleasant, well-paid, and relatively safe 2. Adam Smith - work is an activity requiring the worker to give up his tranquility, his freedom, and his happiness in order to live 3. Nels Anderson - Work is the continues employment in the production of goods and services for remuneration (work is work for pay, everything else is labour) 4. James Reinhart -Any activity that entails the provision of goods and services for others Occupation largely shapes your life. The world of work is changing rapidly November 13 2013 Alienated Worker- alienated in 4 different ways 1. Makes us less human, removes part of that which makes us human.  Work becomes a means for some other end.  Work becomes instrumental, and life begins when work ends. 2. Work was a form of human expression.  We understood who and what we were through work.  We used to find expression in work, now we express ourselves through the means of money that we receive from work. 3. Where you have capitalism you also have alienation. Capitalism is alienation.  Is widely used in psychology  Alienation is something that a smart workers can deal with.  For Reinhart the only way to eliminate alienation is to eliminate capitalism. Under Capitalism we are Alienation by: 1. The product we produce (the product becomes alienated from ourselves) 2. The process in which that process is made (alienated from the process of work) 3. Form self (alienated from work being an extension of my creativeness) 4. From others (competition with everyone, therefore alienating ourselves from others). Major Sources of alienation 1. the concentration and means of production and fewer owners and more workers 2. division of labour 3. the developments of labour, land and economy Class  We decide what class we are part of, there is no such thing as a “class”  You either bought labour or you sold it (Bourgeoisie and the proletarians)  One class exploits another class.  Conlin’s Understanding of class: a class is a social group who shares a common set of characteristics or experiences based on their role in the economy. Their class position has to do with the political power you have, the extent to which you are able to shape gov’t policies. Your ability to shape or define the dominant ideology. Shapes the power you have to other human being in your society. This system produces inequalities in society. Employment, unemployment, and underemployment  In Canada 45-70 averaged unemployment less than 5% per year during the Keynesian era.  71-99 unemployment averaged 8%  Involuntary part time employment= IPT (When people couldn’t find full time jobs they are forced to have involuntary part time jobs)  Jobless grown- the economy is growing but there are not enough jobs to employ the growing economy.  NAIRU- Non-Accelerating Inflation Rate of Unemployment= measure the rate in which the decrease of unemployment triggers the increase in inflation. Priorities Main St. Bay St. (Keynesian) Low Inflation low high High interest rates low high Low unemployment high low Social spending high low Capital mobility low high Deficit reduction low high Governing Instruments Main St Bay St Regulations deregulation Prog. Taxes flat/regressive Public ownership privatization Spending Debt Reduction During the Keynesian period to now Keynesian= blue collar Bay St= white collar (now) 3 kinds of labour 1. Individual contract of employment- known as judge’s law- from the year of industrial revolution. Workers have certain rights and employers have certain rights. Employers have more rights than the workers. 2. Employments standards legislation- human rights legislation. Involves max hours of employment, paid holidays, maternity leave, minimum wage etc. This legislation grew during Keynesian era, now however it is decreasing because of increasing business efficiency in the economy. 3. Collective bargaining- this applies only to employees covered by unionized workers. These people have the most rights and the most bargaining rights. Organized labour would put these things into there collective agreements. You cannot be fired in being in a union activity. It is mandatory to recognize a negotiation and collective agreement. This makes the Wild Cat strike illegal. This was passed in 1944. Union workers
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