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Lecture 4

SOSC 1009 Lecture 4: Ideology&History (Part 3)

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Social Science
SOSC 1009
Terry Conlin

Ideology & History (week 4 – Oct. 5) • Divine right of Kings – being put on the thrown by God • Wigs – liberals • Tories – Conservatives • 1649, Thomas Hobbes – “leviathan” o outrageous claims o civil war = a state of nature • 1688: the glorious revolution o England becomes a constitutional monarch  The king is no longer accountable to God, but the Parliament o John Locke writes two treaties of government o Lead to American revolution o Adam Smith: the wealth of nations • 1776: American Revolution • 1789: The French revolution • Classical Conservative Ideology (dominant ideology of modern society) • Begin to explore socialist ideas o Which eventually take place in liberal ideology The Liberal Debate (Classical Liberal Ideas/ “Dominant Ideologies”) Made up of 4 Key Ideas: 1. Personal Freedom 2. Limited Government 3. Equality of Right 4. Consent of the Government Reform Liberal vs. Contemporary Liberal (same thing) Classical Liberalism: Personal Freedom (Classical Liberalism) • A negative liberty • Negative freedom – freedom from Coercive o From being made to do something you don’t want to do • Individuals should be left to choose their own rules of conduct o Ex. You can choose to fail university • Government is the source of coercive power Limited to Government (Classical Liberalism) • Limited in what its able to do – there should be limits • Limited to three primary functions o Gov’n should provide its citizens with an army o Gov’n should provide society with a police force to uphold o Gov’n should provide society with a system of courts to administer justice, compel people to live up to the contracts they agreed to live by (laws) o *should limit public school education? • Government should behave like a night watch man – to protect its citizens Equality of Right (Classical Liberalism) • All citizens should be subject and abide by the same set of rules • Inequalities of wealth, power will always be relevant o It is up to government to provide a fair society Consent of the Government • Government should require the consent of the government and society • Only those who are important have the right to say that government is at fault, ex. Property owners • Should be free from government, tyranny Reform Liberal: Personal Freedom
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