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2012-02-02.The Feminization of Migrant Labour.doc

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1130
Alina Marquez

2012-02-02 The Feminization of Migrant Labour • International migration policies being used to produce and reproduced forms of labour in a problematic way Gendered Labour, Carework and the Feminization of Migration Topics to be covered: • History of Gendered Migration Schemes in Canada – Immigration policies • Gendered, racial and class based inequalities under the Live in Caregiver Program (LCP) • Globalization, Capitalism, and neo-liberal policies • The case of the Philippines • Unheard stories of the LCP – both during and post completion of the program • Globalization benefiting from domestic labour schemes and its very specific gendering process • Canada unable to attract immigrants for domestic work unless they have connection with source countries • Globalization facilitating this relationship Themes in the Literature on the Care Crisis in the Philippines and Canada • Federal immigration policies and programs – Critical analyses of current and historical immigration policies/strategies • No set schedule, large issue • Effects of globalization • Live-In Caregiver Program (Canada) – problematic Feminization of Migration: Gendered Immigration Policies in Canada • 1880s-1913: periods of open migration • 1955 – establishment of the Caribbean domestics scheme o Issue as only attracting black women, had to broaden our availability to let in more workers • 1973 Beginning migration policies for the hiring of overseas Contract Workers – introduction of Temporary Work Visas o Classified people in terms of class, made people disposable as they were only temporary. Once visa expires you were out • 1981 The Foreign Domestic Movement of 1981 was the next version of this labour import o With this new scheme came devaluation of work criteria • 1992 Live-In Caregiver program has served as the latest framework for the international flow of labour as a solution to the current shortage of affordable child and elder live-in care o Many grey areas of program in wording and policies that do not benefit migrants o Qualifications  Grade 12 or equivalent diploma 2012-02-02  6 months of training or experience in a related field  English (written and oral)  Medical examination o Program Requirements  Upon migration, completion of 24-month live in contract within a 3 year period  Upon completion, permanent citizenship status may be granted • Labour Migration – LCP in Canada o Mostly women of colour, principally from the Philippines o Responsibilities range: Childcare, elder care, upkeep of household o Philippine Overseas Employment Administration (POEA) argue that it is a win-win situation  Claims to protect migrant workers  Country brings in an estimate $2 billion a year in foreign remittances (money sent back home), half of which pays the country’s debt o Exploitative Dimension of live in requirement  Hindering of post-LCP integration success (alternative employment opportunities)  Average net monthly salary = $700 o No record of women who “fail” to complete pro
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