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SOSC 1130 (72)


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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1130
Alina Marquez

2011-09-15 International Migration: Concepts and Approaches Migration: Any permanent change in residence. Moving from one place to another UN distinguishes migration between long term and short term. Long term migration – 1 year out of your country/origin Short term migration – 3-6 months Migration can be internal, within national borders or international, crossing international borders International migration • The social construction of the categories of migration • Documented o Have receiving countries permission to be there o Classified as permanent or temporary  Permanent • Independent • Family • Business o Employed, entrepreneurs, or investors • Refugees o Granted status as they are feared persecution in their origin country • Come undocumented, but seek refugee status  Temporary • Seasonal workers • Domestic workers • Students • Undocumented o No papers, there illegally Vision of Development • Mulroney, Reagan, Thatcher - 3 musketeers, gang of 3 • Neoliberalism • Opened up possibility of international investing • Developed category of investors • Hong Kong investors, rich group migrating to Canada • $500,000 had to be invested, bumped up to $800,000 Family Class • Initially mother father and dependents under 18 • Dependents increased to age 22, older if students or disabled 2011-09-15 • Who counts as a spouse? Used to be someone of opposite sex who you are legally married to • Now, common law relationships and same sex spouses are included • Role of migrants changes and will continue to change as social surroundings change Approaches to Migration Pull and Push Theory • Earliest theoryth • Ravenstein (19 century) • People migrate as there are factors that push them out, and attractive factors of destination that pull them there • Push factors include o oppressive laws o heavy taxation o unattractive climate o uncongenial social surroundings • Pull factors, more important o Desire inherent in men to better themselves in material respects • Rational decision Neo-Classical Economic Theory • Very similar to Push and Pull • Countries with expanding economies and higher wages attract migrants from region where wages are lower • There work is valued higher in destination country • Also known as human capital approach, migration is seen as an investment • Investment: Skills, schooling, house, etc., migrants put a lot of money into country they migrate to New Household Economics of Migration • Focuses on the family, household, not the individual • Maximize decisions to focus on well being of the family • Minimize risks • Family provides supports and subsidizes the migrants trip, whether that me monetary or taking care of kids • Migrant sends home portion of wages • Remittan
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