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2011-11-03.Gender and International Migration.doc

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Social Science
SOSC 1130
Alina Marquez

2011-11-03 Gender and International Migration • Awareness that international policies disadvantage women • Explanations of women’s experiences differ • Some explanations have been embraced by policy makers, while some are ignored Gender: Social or Biological? • Gender – a social construction • Appears natural, rather than something that is socially constructed over time • Common sense • Distinction between Sex and Gender o Sex  Biological characteristics  Male or female  Some ambiguous sexual characteristics (intersex)  Society does not deal with ambiguity  Society makes them into male or female o Gender  Appears natural, but is not  Meanings that we attach to the characteristics, social relations  Gender roles masculine or feminine (social)  Organizing principle in society  Shapes individuals  Creates inability to cross borders  Society links gender to biological characteristics  Gender roles change over time and from place to place  Ordering of roles, as well as ranking of roles (power) • Gender as a social relation of inequality The Historical Construction of Gender Roles in the West and the Industrial Revolution • Industrial Revolution transformed social relations around production and reproduction • Pre industrial society characterized by a non-wage economy, and unity of work and home • With industrialization production and reproduction became organized in a new way • Characteristics of industrial society o Domination of wage labour  Household was no longer a self-sufficient means of economy  Members of family had to survive by working for wages o Split between home and work  Household no longer place of work, lost productive role  Began to fulfill only a reproductive role (reproduction of new generations, daily reproduction of family members) 2011-11-03  Reproduction of family members – feeding, nurturing, retreat from working world (restoring them)  Distinction between public sphere of production (factories) and the private sphere of reproduction (family)  Public sphere characterized by competition and business  Private sphere characterized by personal and intimate relationships  Pre industrial revolution, everyone in home. Post, women belong in the home  Men began to distance themselves from family, had to be provider o Distinction between wage labour and domestic labour  Only work that was waged was recognized as work  Pre industrial revolution, work had a broader meaning
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