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SOSC 1130 (72)
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Lecture 1

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Social Science
SOSC 1130
Awalou O

Lecture 2  Migration is any permanent change in residence o Migration involves moving from one place to another  The UN has distinguished migration long-term migration and short-term migration o Long-term migrant stays at least a year in a different geographical region either in or outside of one’s country o Short-term migrants stays for 3-6 months  Researchers distinguish between internal migration and international migration o Internal migration involves moving between national borders o International migration involves crossing international borders o In this sense, individuals become emigrants in relation to the region one leaves and an immigrant in relation to the destination o There may be a change in language, culture, lifestyle  It can lead to a lower position in the social structure  They can have less prestige even if the wage is more  International migration can deeper distinguished between undocumented and documented migrants o Documented migrant have the government’s permission to be there while undocumented do not (ex: no papers) o Documented can be subdivided into permanent and temporary  Permanent has 4 types: skilled labour, business (ex: self-employed), family class, and refugees  Temporary has skilled and unskilled labourers, seasonal workers (ex: agriculture), domestic workers, and students  Temporary migrants may renew visa or become undocumented migrants  Refugees can be documented or undocumented  They can be granted status outside of Canada but then seek asylum in Canada  The criteria that governs the types have changed over time o They change in response to social and historical circumstances o Ex: Investors were are part of business migration which was a type developed in the 1980s in relation to development during Mulroney and wanted to dismantle national controls  It served the Canadian state well to respond to the opportunities created by the return of Hong Kong to China  It provoked immigration from Hong Kong  New “Head Tax” imposed on the Chinese? o Ex: Who counts as family class has changed also when it comes to immigration  Ex: Age of dependence was increased from 19 to 22 in recognition that people stay in school for longer  Ex: The category of spouse changed and was initially a married heterosexual couple but was broadened to include common law and same sex spouses  There is a range of research on migration in various disciplines and has brought to light different explanations o There really isn’t one applicable model to the immigrant experience because it complex and multi-faceted o Why do people migrate?  Establishing that people migrate does not explain why they do so  There are micro-approaches and macro-approaches  Micro-approaches focus on migrant motivation o Pull and Push theory  It was put forward by Ravenstein in the 19 century  It has limitations but is a theory that is used because it simplified and easy to understand  People migrate from their place of origin because there are factors that push them out and they’re attracted to the receiving country because there are factors that will pull them there  Push factors included oppressive laws, heavy taxation, unattractive climate, uncongenial social surroundings  These push factors were strong but pull factors were more important  The desire that people have to better themselves materially is stronger than the awful circumstance that they are trying to avoid  Humans have an innate desire to get ahead  International migration may help them to achieve it  It is an example that theories are not neutral – they are political and social  It embodies ideas and assumptions about human nature that were developed with the Industrial Revolution o The Revolution not only involved an economic development but also a conceptual one  His model implies a cost-benefit analysis to the decision to migrate  Neo-classical approaches to migration are based on Ravenstein’s ideas o Neo-classical economic  Countries with expanding economies and higher wages attract migrants from countries with lower wages  Also known as the Human Capital Approach because migration is an investment  Capital seeks to maximize returns and humans have their own way of doing this  They move and their return for their skills will be greater o New Household Economics of Migration  This approach is micro but has expanded and does not focus only on the individual but on the household  When individuals make decisions, they do so to maximize the well-being of the family and minimize the risk  The family provides support and subsidizes the migrant trip (ex: paying for plane ticket, watching children)  Remittances protect t
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