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Canada (509,919)
York University (35,328)
Social Science (3,019)
SOSC 1130 (72)
Awalou O (6)

Lecture 2

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Social Science
SOSC 1130
Awalou O

Lecture 3 The Settler State and First Nations  The term Aboriginal is used to refer to the first inhabitants of Canada o Inuit or Metis  First nations refers to those groups who are not Inuit or Metis  The Great Transformation in Europe not only changed Europe but the rest of the world o Europeans considered new lands as an empty space o There was little respect for the people there o The process of considering the land as empty took place during colonial period and also after confederation  Canada did not have a War of Independence to establish a republic as other countries have done o There were no violent wars and therefore it is a product of negotiation and discussion  Led by whom?  In whose interest?  There was little discussion with First Nations and when they did agree on treaties, the promises were not kept o Those with more power controlled the agenda and defined what is and what is not o They also decided on interpretation on events that will prevail as history o The histories became official stories of what happened in society and after a while are not questioned  Ex: First Nation’s unwillingness to change kept them from succeeding in the modern world  The policies that the government put in place kept First Nations from succeeding and it wasn’t necessarily their culture  The official stories are challenged by different interpretations and can have negative consequences (ex: Joe the Painter)  Joe the Painter is a work of fiction but it is informed by reality  Art is considered dangerous to the order  There were a number of explorers early in Canadian history o The first significant wave of settlers in Canada were the French o They were attracted by the fur trade and conversion (ex: the desire to convert First Nations to Christianity) o They were merchants, landless nobles who wanted to own land in the New World, skilled workers and soldiers o There was a gender dimension to international migration to Canada from this part  Most of those who came were men  Young women were encouraged to join them but were not too keen because of the rough territory and therefore the government turned to orphans  It was only later with the development of agriculture that European women began to migrate in mass  In the earlier years when the fur trade was dominant, it was First Nations women who were useful to the economy because strapping involved certain skills that they possess  They had the technology to survive in the Bush (ex: snow shoes)  Europeans took them as wives and they acted as translators  When agriculture became dominant and revolved around the family, the European women became more important o After France lost the war with England in 1760, the British entered Canada and took control of North America  In the second half of the 18 century, French immigration stopped and was replaced with British immigration  It was British immigration that transformed the colonies to be the way they are today  The first real influx of British settlers came from the U.S  Loyalists who did not support the American revolution  It might explain Canada’s conservative political culture  Mainly white but there were also black settlers who were often neglected in literature but had established a presence in Canada early on  Official stories are being challenged and new histories are being written  Scottish Highlanders also arrived from Glencarry County  Emigration from Great Britain became significant after 1815 o Those who came to Canada were mostly part of chain migration  Great Britain had to turn to other regions because they had no other choice  The government promised land to new settlers to have them emigrate to Canada o The promise of land meant a lot to Europeans who had lost their land as a result of industrialization o Land had more than an economic significance for the Scottish and had a cultural aspect o Canada was not empty space and was populated by First Nations therefore North America was an inhabited continent with diverse societies o First Nations were invaluable due to the development of the Fur Trade  Without First Nations, Canada would not have developed the trade  There was a transformation from a fur trade economy to an agricultural
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